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October 13, 2009

Curator Trek


Blog photo1

So I’ve just returned from the University of Exeter in the UK where I was an invited speaker for the workshop, De-Placing Future Memory.  It was quite a trek, right in the middle of editing madness as I’m completing work on my next exhibition catalogue, HIDE.  It is hard to turn down an invitation to speak to a new audience about contemporary Native American art, or to participate in a stimulating dialogue about art—or in this case, the intersection of memory, place and art. Curators wear many hats at the NMAI.  Sure, we research and build the collection, organize exhibitions, and write for our various publications.  But we are often called upon to be the face of the museum, well outside of the museum.  As a curator of contemporary Native art, I always take these opportunities to introduce or promote Native art seriously, even when they aren’t that convenient.


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Hi Kathleen, I always have high respect for curators. I think they have extraordinary taste of art and beauty, it's fascinating.

I just check this blog, I like the information, I want to say thank you for the information you have shared. Just continue writing this kind of post. I will be your loyal reader. Ton of thanks. Regards

October 09, 2009

Upcoming Teacher Workshop for IndiVisible: Thursday, October 15, 2009 (4-6:30 pm.)

IndiVisible:  African-Native American Lives in the Americas, produced in collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Services and the National Museum of African American History and Culture, raises a host of challenging, and sometimes controversial themes, about identity, race, shared (but often invisible) histories and heritage.  How well do textbooks and current curricula present complicated issues of race, identity, and show the diverse historical interactions between different ethnic groups?  As teachers, how often do you get to address these themes in the units that you teach, and what are some of the strategies that you presently use to encourage students to explore these sensitive issues?


Educators are invited to attend our upcoming workshop for IndiVisible on Thursday, October 15 from 4-6:30 pm. at the National Museum of the American Indian.  Participants will learn about primary sources associated with the exhibit, receive a sneak-peek of the show, and have the opportunity to meet with one of the co-curators of the exhibit, local activist and educator Penny Gamble-Williams.


Advanced registration is required.  Please visit our education homepage at www.nmai.si.edu/education to download a registration form (located on our Teacher Programs page), and to learn more about this and other upcoming events.


Comments (11)

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How do we include the Choctaws in the exhibits?
They were a major Indian Nation responsible
for the civilization.
Many of the Choctaw Nation villages were located from the Choctaw Sea called Atlantic today.

Forts which became State Parks Like Fort Fort Cooper and Jackson State Park in Florida has many of the artifacts of the Choctaw People.

How do we reclaim this artifacts so they can be apart of this museum exhibit?

My name is Louise Thundercloud and I am a mixed blood as are most of us in urban areas. When The Smithsonian Museum of the American Indian opened, I was very excited, I took off from work the entire week to attend the festivities. I missed being around Native people and enjoyed myself very much.

I was first made aware that the issue of color and ethnicity existed when I was called a nigger by a western Tslagi, I was more surprised by her comments to me than anything else, but I went on to enjoy myself for the remainder of the day.

During the opening of the museum I overheard many elders saying to whites that "we must begin the healing between us". After hearing one such conversation, I went to the elder who I believe was Tslagi and told him that the healing needed to take place between Native people, both who had ties to Africa and those who do not.

I am very happy that a dialog exist between native peoples in the project of Indivisible, however I strongly feel that the issue of self-identification and being native was not given enough of a consideration or one at all.

I was thinking of a observation and question the late Vine Deloria Jr. made of the Lakotah. His question was "do the Lakotah cease existing because their land base was disrupted"? I ask the same thing when the issue of race, being mixed blood and native come up.

Because I encounter nastiness from other natives who have an issue with my skin color, does that mean I am no long native?

And here is my other question, do I hear the very same issues from those who are mixed with european? Why is it such a divisive matter not only in native circles, but in african american circles as well?

Friday night at the museum, I heard of the issues as they pertained to native people with african blood from the native community, however what of those issues as they come from the african american community?

My other observation would be that more dialog needs to happen in some way to discuss issues of identity. Why is it that some of us who are of mixed ancestry are very protective of our native identities, and identify only as our nations, not as afro native, or black indians?

Of course we are in this century, but aren't some of the problems we face as native people, a direct effect of forgetting the past? Who were we in the past? How would we have been treated traditionally?

I also have issue with likening our struggles as native peoples to that of african americans, they are not similar in my mind because we are from sovereign nations? Civil rights denote minority status, status of those who do not belong to the land. As native people we do belong to the land, and the land to us as Creator chose it. We were given responsibility to care for this land, were we not?

I understand not all of us had the opportunity to be raised with knowledge of our traditions, or our peoples, some had that snatched away, however shouldn't this acknowledgment be accompanied by offers of learning what we should know?

Indivisible asks that we be all welcome at the table, that was also my goal in my conversations with the museum, however since this step has been taken, should we not seriously question how we will use this acknowledgment? Will we use it to learn, to become as one with our people, or to show in one more way, how different we are?

Again I will ask, why is this not such an issue with those who are mixed with european?

Louise Thundercloud


I am a mixed blood as are most who are in urban areas. My questions concernng the Indivisible project is this, how important is identity as a native person? I ask this, because the hurts expressed by many at being left out of pow wows, left out of discussions because of the color of skin easily has created a third definition, afro indian.
I am a amature historian of a sort, I am also very solid in my identity. As a young girl was told of my native ancestry before any other ancestry, I was surrounded by my native ancestry. Later on I heard of the african and scot irish in my family.
I read the writings of Vine Deloria Jr. on the Dawes rolls & the Lakotah people, and feel he made a valid point, that was did the Lakotah cease being Lakotah because they had a diminished land base?
Because many of us have had terrible experiences within the native community, are we not native as well?
My mixtures are Hunkpapa/Dakotah/Tslagi/Siksika & Coast Salish. Some of my blood is from Benin west africa & the moors. I indentify as indigenous or native.
My desire to have native people open dialogue for those of us who have african ties was for healing & education.
I still want us who have this blood mixture to be able to identify with who our people are. I never hear those with european blood say they are white indians, so I don't understand the push to be black or afro indians

Greetings, when I searched for my ancestor who is on the Dawes rolls, it was suggested I try accessgenealogy. It is a free site. You can also put the final Dawes rolls into your browser & check that way. Was your ancestor Cherokee or Freedman
there are two different rolls

Thanks for putting this type of context.
I love reading and I am always searching for informative information like this..


Easily, the post is actually the greatest on this deserving topic. I agree with your conclusions and will thirstily look forward to your coming updates.

Are there any more of these planned in 2011?


Thank you for asking. The museum's Education Office will have workshops in Washington this fall to discuss teaching opportunities using an upcoming museum website on Native knowledge of the environment. Dates and more specific topics are yet to be determined.

If you'd like to receive NMAI's email newsletter for teachers, please write to us via NMAISocialMedia@si.edu. We'll put your address on the email list and keep you in the loop.

Thank you for another great article. Where else could anyone get that kind of information
in such a perfect way of writing? I have a presentation next week, and I am on the
look for such information.

This information is very helpful. As an instructor of High School and
Community College students, it's good to know how to reach
my students better through the online components of
my Religion classes.

Thank you for keeping us updated.

What to expect when you’re expecting (an exhibition).

Two weeks ago, Crux (as seen from those who sleep on the surface of the earth under the night sky) was installed in the Potomac, the main rotunda at NMAI. It now hangs and rotates, as a result of a multitude of hours and of hands planning and weighing and balancing and adjusting. Five large plastic animals nearly perfectly balanced and counter-balanced from an inverted rowboat suspended from the ceiling. Engineering! 

The morning of the installation: the emu, the possum, the sea eagle, and the shark, loaded onto carts, took the freight elevator up from the basement collections area where they had been corralled for the past several months. Then the elevator broke. The crocodile took the more scenic route: up from the loading dock to the mean streets of DC, through the staff entrance (allowed access despite lack of appropriate identification), and to the Potomac.

Three scissor lifts were employed simultaneously to lift the pieces in appropriate sequence. When the lifts descended, Crux was left to turn at will.

Hanging crux
Jay and Pat of the exhibits shop staff, in hard hats. Crux in the process of being hung.

Curator delights
A curator delights.

It looks pretty amazing.

And elsewhere? Garbage cans.

Image retrieved from here. (Photo: Mathieu Génon, courtesy of the artist, Casey Kaplan, NY, and Frac des Pays de la Loire, France.)

The piece above, Carapace, was originally made by Mr. Jungen at Frac des Pays de la Loire, in France, out of French plastic garbage bins. Les poubelles. When the piece was dismantled, the bins were systematically stacked, and shipped over the Atlantic by sea freight.  Land ho, the port of Baltimore and thence to Smithsonian storage and finally NMAI. So many bins, so many bins.

Cleaning bins
Thorough inspection. Photo by Gail Joice.

And here is one of the small paradoxes of conservation and collections care: cleaning garbage cans. These, as garbage cans are wont to do, sat outside, in French dirt, prior to their use in this piece. Alas, with dirt can come pests, which can make the trans-Atlantic crossing, bunked under handles, hidden in the depths of the bins. Some of these pests, at times, can have an innate hunger for some museum objects as a food source; following their natural search and destroy policy, they can infest and damage museum collections.

Gail and bin
Gail Joice, Collections Manager, inspects a bin.

And so, with this in mind, upon their arrival at NMAI, the garbage cans were unpacked and inspected. (Customs apparently does not offer this type of conservation service.) We looked for pests. We found a few. Mostly spiders, who had known better days. And we cleaned off the conspicuous dust and dirt with water and rags. (It was likely the closest I’ll get to a holiday on French soil this year.)

And now, with the cleaner garbage bins, Mr. Jungen works on the reconstruction of the piece. Expect some changes. Jigsaws are currently being employed. There are plastic crumbs everywhere.

And elsewhere:

A skeleton.

A flag.

Many hands to raise them both. Luckily the artist is here to give his input.

Be ready. The 16th is right around the corner.



A very different installation. Leave the pins at home.

Comments (6)

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This is an very interesting article, I have to say "Thorough inspection" is my favorite. I will be sure to check back regularly.



The turtle shell of garbage cans is priceless! Really wish I could have been there to see all this, your photos are a beautiful consolation though. Thanks!

- Joseph

I find the carapace piece amazing. It took a lot of work and a lot of cleaning phases but the results speaks for itself.

I like Crux. I've always liked any work of art that fills empty spaces above our heads with such a brilliant, artistic and beautiful piece of artwork. Great input!

Michelle Porter

I've always found hanging installations like this fascinating. I've never had a installation of my own, but thanks to this article I feel like I'd know what to expect.


enjoyed the post and the information good job thanks.

October 07, 2009

Mary G. Ross blazed a trail in the sky as a woman engineer in the space race, celebrated museum

Mary Golda Ross 
 Photos courtesy of Mary McCarthy

When she was 96 years old, Mary Golda Ross asked her niece to make her something very special: the first traditional Cherokee dress that Ross, the great-great-granddaughter of renowned Chief John Ross, would ever own.

Because Ross, after a lifetime of high-flying achievement as one of the nation's most prominent women scientists of the space age, wanted to wear her ancestral dress to the opening of the Smithsonian's new National Museum of the American Indian. Wearing that dress of green calico, Ross joined in the procession of 25,000 Native peoples that opened the museum five years ago.  

Mary G. Ross—whose Cherokee lineage includes leaders and teachers and who herself now figures in the lineage as the Cherokee rocket scientist—spent her century of life looking mostly into the future.   

She passed away in 2008 just three months shy of her 100th birthday. Born in 1908 on her parents' allotment in the foothills of the Ozarks, she was one year younger than the state of Oklahoma. At 16, she enrolled in Northeastern State Teachers College, which her ancestor Chief John Ross was involved in founding.  She taught science and math during the Great Depression in rural Oklahoma. By 1937 she was teaching at a school for American Indian artists in Santa Fe that would later become the Institute of American Indian Art. She pursued a master’s degree at the University of Northern Colorado, where she took every astronomy class they had.

In 1942 she was hired as a mathematician at Lockheed Corporation, and assigned to work with the engineers who were doing the pioneering research that would launch the space race.  Later Lockheed trained her to become one of the 40 engineers in known as the Lockheed Skunk Works, a super-secret think tank led by legendary aeronautics engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson. It was the start of Lockheed Missiles & Space Co., a major consultant to NASA based in Sunnyvale, Calif. Ross was 45, the only woman and the only Native American. 

Mary Golda Ross Her Lockheed team's top-secret project?

"Preliminary design concepts for interplanetary space travel, manned and unmanned earth-orbiting flights, the earliest studies of orbiting satellites for both defense and civilian purposes," columnist Leigh Weimers wrote in the San Jose Mercury News in 1994.

"Often at night there were four of us working until 11 p.m.," Ross recalled in the article. "I was the pencil pusher, doing a lot of research. My state of the art tools were a slide rule and a Frieden computer."

Most of the theories and papers that emerged from the group, including those by Ross, are still classified. As she told her alma mater's newspaper in the 1990s, "We were taking the theoretical and making it real." One of Ross' seminal roles was as one of the authors of the NASA Planetary Flight Handbook Vol. III, about space travel to Mars and Venus.

Four years before she passed away, as the National Museum of the American Indian opened, Ross knew that this was an occasion of historic importance. This forward thinking Cherokee woman who helped put an American man on the moon said, "The museum will tell the true story of the Indian—not just the story of the past, but an ongoing story."

Comments (38)

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Great Post, I love reading this stuff. I can only imagine the wealth of information this woman has for us. :)

This story is a great one indeed.

I look forward to researching more about the contributions to space engineering from people from different ethnic backgrounds! Great achievement.

Gerry Mats

Really a great women and god gave her a very long life.

I wish the major news networks paid attention to stories like this. What an amazing testament to what is possible in America, to what is possible for women, to what is possible for American Indians.

To the question "if you could have lunch with anyone in the world who would it be?", I now believe my answer would be Mary Golda Ross.

I can't imagine the amazing stories she could tell.

Dan Morris

Mary Ross was truly a "Legend in her own Time." This is an amazing article that I hope to do more research on.


Mary Ross was not only a woman before her time, she made amazing contributions to the space age.

Kathy P.

Mary Ross was a very inspiring person. Why does the news focus on such negative things when positive stories like this exist?

You would think they would want to cover great stories like this!


Very interesting article

I look forward to researching more about the contributions to space engineering from people from different ethnic backgrounds! Great achievement.

Very inspirational woman indeed. We could do with a few more of them around to get things going in the right direction again.

This post needs more press, it's a heartwarming story about how far we've come in America. It's a testament to the fact that the U. S. is truly the land of opportunity and here's proof that one can achieve anything they truly aspire to.

I never thought there is a woman in the group, she has done a great contribution to our world, amazing! So brilliant.

Hello. I wish the major news networks paid attention to stories like this. What an amazing testament to what is possible in America, to what is possible for women, to what is possible for American Indians.

Really a great woman!


With all of the bad news that is constantly in our faces these days, it is great to read a heartwarming story like this.

Outstanding article! It is really refreshing to read about a strong great person who happens to be a minority and a woman. It is shocking how rare these types of stories are in the mainstream media.

Adam - Author
Barracuda Pool Cleaner

This woman is cool and to think that she lived in an old school way. 1908? Nearly 100? Man, that is really awesome.


It is great to read about pioneers especially those who were once looked down upon. Great things happen to those who believe in themselves.

My wife and I love reading everything we can find on Mary Ross. We love reading truly inspiration stories such as these.

In fact, I wish the news would cover more of them!

Very good post!

Thanks for posting this wonderful article about Mary Ross!
worth reading.


It's amazing how much new technologies move on in space engineering.

I have been involved in ion propulsion for several years and got the great experience of having hardware fly in space.

(You can see here http://corvosastroengineering.com/articles/electric-propulsion-how-it-works-in-4-easy-steps/)

I'm sure Mary Ross liked that feeling that what she did was out there working!

This woman is a inspiration. To be at that position at that time. America was really smart to use all the people with brains they had. That's why the war was won. Amazing story, really of this woman.


It's so tricky to get priceless info on the web. Thank god, I've identified your webpage. I loved reading your story. I think you supply helpful info. Congratulations, and constantly posting to us.

Unquestionably a great inspiring woman. I enjoyed reading your post. Thank you for sharing it with us.

That is just an amazing story.

I wish we all come to that age—100 almost.

Thank you.

It’s indeed a great story, after reading this it motivates me to do more researching about space engineering. She is truly a Legend in her own Time! God bless her.

great post..
try to visit Hawaii

I would really like to give her a credit, since her acheivments are really appreciable.

Well said! The standing ovation came as a surprise, however.

The post is very useful,it helps me a lot, this is the thing that people really want to know, thanks for sharing.


nice post, thank you.

What an incredible engineer.

So the museum opened in 2002?

Kepler 22 Fan: The National Museum of the American Indian in Washington opened on September 21, 2004. The museum's George Gustav Heye Center, a gallery and program space in New York City, opened in 1994.

I was in DC when the museum opened. Wow! What an event. I am so glad we took the time to honor and pay tribute to these great americans!

Congrats to Mary G Ross for her achievements. It's really a big step forward for women.


In my eyes Mary Ross was a very inspiring person!

Great item to read, thanks for publishing it!

Can't believe she is now 96. How wonderful and great she is, a briliant woman scientist.

With all of the bad news that is constantly in our faces these days, it is great to read a heartwarming story like this.

IndiVisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americas

Since the early days of U.S. history, Native Americans and African Americans have been linked by fate, by choice, and by blood. Terrible and remarkable things have passed over and between our communities, as well as the communities we have created together.

Kevin Gover (Pawnee), Director
National Museum of the American Indian
Lonnie Bunch, Director
National Museum of African American History and Culture

On November 10, 2009, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) will host the opening of Indivisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americas.  A collaborative effort between the NMAI, the National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) and the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Services (SITES), the exhibition uncovers and engages the often hidden, but shared histories and lived realities of people who share African American and Native American heritage and ancestry.

For centuries, African American and Native people have come together, shared cultural traditions and practices, united in common struggle, and forged relationships throughout the Americas. At the same time, they were divided by racial prejudice, laws, and twists of history that denied their shared heritage and ancestry. Notable figures in U.S. history such Crispus Attucks, Paul Cuffee, and Langston Hughes all had American Indian ancestry. Yet when most people think of these individuals, they do so as African American.  Understanding why and how history and society have ascribed such individuals an identity as “Black” or “African American” while at the same time ignoring their American Indian ancestry is a primary the goal of Indivisible.  By focusing on the dynamics of race, community, culture and creativity, Indivisible seeks to uncover an important aspect of our history and heritage as Americans and our common desire of being and belonging to family, community, and nation.  We hope this blog will create a space to facilitate discussion around the complex and sometimes challenges issues raised in the exhibit.

Comments (25)

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An important topic and one that deserves a forum for people to share their own stories. Thanks for creating this blog.

what kind of tribes are in georgia

I SO want to find my great grandmother or grandfather on the Dawes Rolls or find my heritage as a Cherokee!!!! I have little information to go on. Just my grandfather's name. He was 1/2 blood, my great-grandmother was full blood Cherokee. I want to be associated with the Cherokee Nation. It is so close to my heart. Can someone give me advice on how to go about it? Help me please!

Hello and thank you for all your organization has done and will continue to do, I recently heard a broadcast about african-indian americans on ustreamtv and I would like to get a little help with some research on my family.

If a family was issued an indian roll number and has misplaced that information what do they to reclaim another copy.

And how do you trace a tribe, on the maternal side of my family my Great,great,great Grandmother was a Blackfoot indian from Alberta Canada her name was Sally Two Tree when she came here she had a daughter my Great,great Grandmother Sarah Bloodworth Grant she had 8 names but I only knew her as Grandma Sarah where would I find out more about them.

Also how do you track the slaves?

My Great,great,great Grandfather was a slave by the name of Isiah Smith his slave owners lastname where Jones.
He was born sometime 1835 he fought in the Spanish American War, he also married a woman named Louisa Cotton I don't know if they had children and he passed April 1926.

Where do I go to find out more about them and anyone else thats a part of my ancestry, if you have any information that can help me out please contact me.

There is a part of African-American history that is also Native history. The great migration North included Native people who were trying to blend in to survive. To places like Philadelphia, Detroit, Chicago and New York.

the Museum tend to focus on western tribes and I think that once more emphasis is placed on tribes of the southeast and northeast more accounts of people of Native/black Ancestry can come to light. As a member I was disappointed that more was not being done to shed light on this. Then they published the article on Plecker in their Magazine. Which was excellent. Now the Indivisible exhibit in additions has showed me that they are improving in this area. I think if they continue they will boost their membership if they continue to document and portray history of Native Black peoples and future exhibits.

This exhibit sounds fascinating. I have a cousin in DC, so I will definitely have to come see this.

I'm Shawnee/Choctaw on my mother's side and Choctaw on my dad's side.

I don't know if we're on any kind of rolls, but I've always had a close identity with my tribal heritage. I'll be majoring in American Indian studies next year.

Hello All,
Many of you have asked the common question..."How do I track my Native heritage?" Perhaps some of you may already know your ancestors and therefore know to which tribe you belong but have no way of proving it. This is a common issue with many Indigenous Peoples of North and South America. Many people never succeed in reuniting with their Native communities. It is unsettling to see that so many have lost the connection with their traditional home physically, as well as spiritually.
Unfortunately, it is extremely hard to reconnect without having physical evidence of your ancestry. Even the smallest first and last name could be the determinant of tribal enrollment. The museums exhibit, “IndiVisble” has paved the way for many questions concerning this controversial topic. How do tribes determine who is and is not a member? What is blood quantum? Is it culturally contradicting to use the blood quantum system, etc. ? The entire subject and exclusion of so many leaves indigenous nations resembling an ultra-exclusive club in that only the elite are allowed to enter. In fact it is quite the contrary. History and hundreds of years of oppression would have us believe that ascribing to Native American heritage is most certainly not a path to elitism, rather the opposite. However, in the quest of respect and recognition several find themselves lost in attempts to understand their identity.
If you are one, of the many, who are searching for yourself or trying to become recognize by your tribe here is some information that might help:
The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration
8601 Adelphi Road
College Park, MD 20740-6001
Telephone: 1-866-272-6272
U.S. Department of the Interior
1849 C. Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20240
Telephone: 202-208-3100
Also, most tribes have an Office of Vital Records. It is probably best to contact the tribe first with your evidence at their Office of Vital Records. This office houses tons of information about tribal members and can most likely look up your relative’s information.
Keep in mind that knowing and proving you are Native does not always mean you are automatically going to become an enrolled member. There are many criteria that individual tribes enforce on their tribal members (e.g. in some cases at least ¼ Native blood).
“Finding Native ancestry is often a difficult and uncertain path. Genealogical searches for Native roots often begin with clues in oral accounts passed down through generations. Research into census records, archives, deeds, wills, and church documents can take years. Even when a Native ancestor is identified, tribal enrollment does not always follow, since each Native nation has its own specific rules for membership.” –NMAI “IndiVisible”

-Glennas’ba B. Augborne (Navajo)

I totally agree with Jasen... The African Americans and the Natives share a lot in common dating back to hundreds of years ago... Very excellent post... Thanks for all you do!


Loved the content in your blog. Really enjoyed reading it, please keep up the good work. I will tell some of my friends of your good writing and send some traffic your way


It sounds like alot of time and effort has gone into this exhibit,well done.Will surely pass by soon as i have some family in DC

Thank you for making people aware of such tribes and that part of the world, it's really great to have come to know about it.

I love the fact that African-Native Americans are having their history told. My family are African American and Haliwa Saponi tribe from North Carolina and I have always been told to love what I am and my history. I look forward to reading the book and hopefully going to see the display in DC.

We have been tryin to trace my boy freinds family tree and i have no clue where to start, all we know is his grandparents were blackfoot indian, they were from alabama.. no one has record of this nor does his parents but there is pictures of the gramma with long black hair and looks very native american.. what do we do?? where do we start to look for info at .. help...

Really good & informative post.

Great & informative blog. Keep posting more.Thanks

Great article very informative, It's nice to know their culture and history. I really enjoyed reading because i appreciate history so much.

Great & informative blog. Keep posting more.Thanks

Very informative post. Thanks for sharing..

Great photos and posts. :)

I wish discrimination would stop because it only ruins the peace. Every person is unique in his/her own ways. We must be one as brothers and sisters. Blacks, Whites, and others must unite because the world is facing many problems right now.

what an interesting story. I did not know about the rich history of african american indians in the US!
Thanks so much for the post, I really enjoyed learning about African Native Americans :)


I just check this blog, I like the information, I want to say thank you for the information you have shared. Just continue writing this kind of post. I will be your loyal reader. Ton of thanks.

This is a great history article.
As a young person i am unaware of African Indians back in the early days.

Thanks for the educational article.