April 10, 2014

Photographers Larry McNeil and Will Wilson Go for the Platinum

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Will Wilson's finished platinum print portraits. Used with the permission of the artist. 

Photographers Larry McNeil (Tlingit/Nisga′a) and Will Wilson (Diné/Bilagáana) have been invited to speak about their platinum printmaking at an international symposium on the science, conservation, significance, and continued application of the historic photographic process. Presented by the Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works in collaboration with the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI), National Gallery of Art, Library of Congress, and the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, the symposium will take place on October 22 and 23, 2014. The two photographers are scheduled to speak on the first day of the two-day program. Tours of photo collections held by the National Gallery of Art, Library of Congress, and the National Museum of American History and workshops on the the chemistry of platinum and palladium photographs are offered on October 21 and 24.

NMAI has acquired platinum works from both artists and is currently preparing an exhibition of these important photographs. Opening on June 7, 2014, Indelible: The Platinum Photographs of Larry McNeil and Will Wilson reminds us of the role platinum photographs played in late-19th- and early-20th-century representations of Native Americans. The exhbition further argues that McNeil and Wilson challenge this problematic history by integrating the process into their contemporary practice.

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Larry McNeil and his assistant with a test platinum print of Elders. Used with the permission of the artist.

In preparation for the show, the two photographers have been hard at work in their darkrooms. Platinum paper used to be manufactured by photographic supply companies and was basically ready to use right out of the box. In fact, platinum printing was considered easy to do. This is no longer the case. The platinum process is now difficult and dangerous. McNeil and Wilson have to make their own platinum paper by mixing light-sensitive chemicals in a darkroom and applying the solution to the paper. The photographers use a printing frame to put the sensitized paper in direct contact with a negative, then expose the frame to light. Upon exposure, the image from the negative burns itself onto the paper in reverse. McNeil and Wilson must monitor the development of the print so as not to produce an over- or underexposed photograph. After exposure, they return to the darkroom to dunk the print in a chemical fixing bath.

I asked Will Wilson to describe the work involved in using a digital image to create a negative for platinum printing:

A contrast curve is the tonal relationship ranging from black to white. Establishing the contrast curve for a digital negative depends on several factors: the paper to be used for the final print, the platinum/palladium ferric oxalate ratios, the developer, the light source, and the negative substrate material combination. Humidity also impacts the curve. 

With my homemade platinum solution, I sensitize a Stouffer test wedge, which measures a gradient of tones in five percent increments from black to white, to do a series of tests to find the time that gets me to the dMax—the shortest time to develop the perfect black. I record this. Next I expose another test wedge at my perfect-black time, and this anticipates the entire tonal range of a platinum print. I let the new test strip dry and then scan it into Photoshop. 

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Will Wilson's digitally derived negative of his self-portrait. Used with the permission of the artist.

In Photoshop I use the eyedropper tool while viewing the contrast curve of my scan to measure the contrast values at each of those five-percent increments. You “build your curve” by inputting these values into an inverted version of your contrast curve, which radically changes its shape. You apply this new curve to your test wedge and reprint. Now you run another test strip, scan, and measure. This time your contrast values should give you a curve that is much more linear, with a steady, predictable progression from black to white.

Based on this test you tweak the first curve you built and test again. Hopefully you are very linear at this point. Now you use the curve you built with its tweaks, applying it to all of your digital negatives, and you should be golden for your particular combo.

One more thing: Bostick and Sullivan of Santa Fe and photographer Ron Reeder should be credited for leading me down this particular wormhole. 


Larry McNeil recently posted to his blog on the cutting-edge technology he uses in aid of his platinum-printing and his thought process for titling his newest work, which will appear in Indelible.

The photography symposium has received support from the Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the National Gallery of Art. For a complete schedule of the symposium and to register, submit payment, or apply for scholarship funding, please click here.

Indelible: The Platinum Photographs of Larry McNeil and Will Wilson will be on view at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C., from June 7, 2014, to January 15, 2015.

—Heather Shannon and Will Wilson


Heather Shannon is photo archivist at the National Museum of the American Indian and curator of Indelible.
 

Will Wilson , a Diné photographer who grew up in the Navajo Nation, studied photography at Oberlin College (BA, 1993) and the University of New Mexico (MFA in Photography, 2002). In 2007, Wilson won the Native American Fine Art Fellowship from the Eiteljorg Museum, and in 2010 was awarded a grant from the Joan Mitchell Foundation. From 2009 to 2011, he managed the National Vision Project, a Ford Foundation funded initiative at the Museum of Contemporary Native Arts in Santa Fe, and helped to coordinate the New Mexico Arts Temporary Installations Made for the Environment (TIME) program on the Navajo Nation. Wilson is part of the Science and Arts Research Collaborative (SARC) which brings together artists interested in using science and technology in their practice with collaborators from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia Labs as part of the International Symposium on Electronic Arts, 2012 (ISEA). His installation Auto Immune Response was on view at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York in 2006. 

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March 27, 2014

The Museum's Artist Leadership Program Launches a New Collaboration with the Institute of American Indian Arts

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Melissa Shaginoff (Chickaloon Village) and Charles Rencountre (Lower Brule Sioux Tribe) are the first participants in a prototype Artist Leadership Program for students at the Institute of American Indian Arts. 

The Artist Leadership Program (ALP) of the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) aims to rebuild cultural self-confidence, challenge personal boundaries, and foster cultural continuity while reflecting artistic diversity. This year, the museum and the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA) in Santa Fe worked together to develop a prototype program within the ALP for IAIA college students from indigenous communities in the United States. The program's goal is to recognize and promote indigenous artistic leadership and, at the same time, enhance the artistic growth, development, and leadership of emerging student artists and scholars. Selection for the program is coordinated with the IAIA and is based on students’ proposed research, public art projects, academic presentations, digital portfolios, resumes, artist statements, and letters of support from IAIA faculty. Participating students register and receive credit for their independent study experience.

Melissa Shaginoff (Chickaloon Village) and Charles Rencountre (Lower Brule Sioux Tribe) are taking in the inaugural program, conducting research in the museum’s collections and making presentations to the museum’s staff. In the next phase of the program, Melissa and Charles will create new works of art for public display at IAIA, based on their research projects at the NMAI. Here are their personal stories of their NMAI research, staff experiences, and perceptions on Native art. 
 

CHARLES RENCOUNTRE 

I am a Lakota from Rapid City, South Dakota. I am enrolled at the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe. I am a student and artist working on a BFA at the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA) in Santa Fe, New Mexico. I will begin my senior projects in the fall semester of 2014.

My goal in coming to the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) was to research the calumet and see first-hand how they were constructed by the ancestors. My perception of the world of research changed over the course of the first several hours I spent at the Cultural Resource Center (CRC) during the week of March 17 to 22, 2014. I was introduced to Mr. Anthony Williams, a museum specialist, and he guided me through the research and treated me and the sensitive objects with the highest level of respect and professionalism. He also asked if I would like to use the smudge room, and I gratefully accepted this offer.

The level of security personnel, locked doors and departmental passes all seemed a normal part of the museum culture I have been accustomed to in the larger museum field. It was the level of kindness and family at the NMAI while attending to the need for security that affected my perception.

My wife Alicia brought this NMAI opportunity to my attention after seeing it in her IAIA email account. She is my strongest educational advocate. I will share my experience with my fellow art students as a must-do, and I will also share my new knowledge about the accessibility and proper protocols for attaining research through the NMAI. 

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Emil Her Many Horses (left) and Charles Rencountre working together at the museum's Cultural Resources Center. 

The most significant moment was when I was consulting with Mr. Emil Her Many Horses in the CRC collections. He is a respected artist, scholar, role model, and elder from my home community, the Lakota Nation in South Dakota. Mr. Her Many Horses took the time to share with me the stories of our people and how they related to the making of the calumets. He explained the reasons why different feathers, yarns, and colors were used. He taught me things that could only be taught person to person. His teaching will stay with me, and I will share it as I make my public art project for my community. 

Regarding the question of art, or of contemporary and traditional Native American Art: I have always identified myself as a Native American contemporary traditional artist. After visiting the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian and the Cultural Resource Center in Suitland, Maryland, my perception of the idea of art is reaffirmed. The making of what we call art is a gift of expressing what is important in our lives. It could be as simple as decorating a bag that holds a ration card from the early reservation era, or as large as a forty-foot totem pole from the Northwest coastal tribes. 

The value of this NMAI Artist Leadership Program experience to me is that I now have more of the skills required to be an effective researcher and artist, not only at the NMAI but also within the entire Smithsonian complex worldwide. I have been taught some of the foundational protocols for accessing information from the Cultural Resource Center’s staff. I have become a member of the NMAI’s family, something I value very highly, and I am deeply honored by it. 

The first skills I learned and will be practicing have to do with the archival aspect of research. I think this is the most important part for me, because I will be conducting research from afar. Working with Heather Shannon, Rachel Menyuk, and Michael Pahn in the archives department was gaining a very important tool that I can use immediately. I could have spent more time with them easily. 

Based on my desire to learn and on what the NMAI has shared with me, I will lead by example. I will continue to research with the tools I have been gifted and share with my fellow students my successes. 

I will use these new skills to research my Senior Projects in my last two semesters at IAIA. I will take these skills through the rest of my career and share them with all who ask for my help. 

It truly has been an honor to become a family member of the NMAI; it is a dream come true. Thank you Jill Norwood, community services specialist; Jacquetta Swift, repatriation manager; Heather Shannon, photo archivist; Rachel Menyuk, archives technician; Zandra Wilson, cultural interpreter; Dennis Zotigh, museum cultural specialist; and so many more of the Smithsonian family who where so helpful and supportive. 

—Charles Rencountre 


MELISSA SHAGINOFF

My name is Melissa Shaginoff, and I am Ahtna Athabascan of the Tsisyu clan from Chickaloon Village, Alaska. I grew up in the small fishing town of Kenai, Alaska. I received my first Bachelor’s degree in Psychology, from the University of Alaska, Anchorage, and I’m currently enrolled in the BFA program at the Institute of American Indian Arts. My current work centers upon my own personal identity and issues of contemporary indigenous female identity. 

My first intention was to gain a visual reference for objects I had been told about but had never seen back home. Items such as traditional red ochre painted regalia and symbolic amulets. I applied to the Artist Leadership Program in my first semester at IAIA. Being a new student, I didn’t think my research proposal would be chosen, but the chance to experience these items empirically was so intriguing I had to at least apply. And luckily I was chosen for this great opportunity. I would certainly recommend this experience to other students. My time at NMAI I feel has forever changed my art, and the knowledge I’ve gained I will share with my tribe and family.

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Melissa Shaginoff's research focuses on Ahtna–Athabascan objects in the museum's collections.

It’s hard to narrow down what was the most significant moment of this NMAI Artist Leadership Program experience, but I would have to say that a certain item I looked at was particularity special to me. There is only a small number of Ahtna-specified material in the NMAI collections, so I asked to look at all of it. I came across a knife and hide sheath. The NMAI collection staff member I was working with, Veronica Quiguango, suggested that we turn the item around and look on the back. When we did, we discovered the name Chief Nikolai carved into the hide sheath. Chief Nikolai was my great-great granduncle. There are some 800,000 items in the collection at NMAI and somehow I chose to look at this knife and sheath. Perhaps it is just serendipitous, but I feel very blessed to have been gifted with such a physical connection to my experience at the museum. This knife and sheath have inspired a confidence that I am on the right path in the current exploration of my art.

As artists we all draw upon personal history in developing our ideas and process. As an artist with a Native background, I naturally draw upon indigenous technique and material in my work. This experience with NMAI has only increased that background of techniques and materials to draw upon.

I feel that I gained a new respect for the collection itself. There’s a certain power to these items that I studied that is palpable and reverent. Both the knowledge possessed in the construction of these items and the thought that perhaps the last Ahtna person to hold these things quite possibly was my great-great granduncle is a humbling concept. I now want to become a leader of my community. I want to share what I’ve learned and experienced at NMAI and encourage others to reach out for opportunities, because experiences like this have the ability to change so much of one’s own work. I certainly will never be the same and neither will my art. I’ve grown as both an artist and as an Ahtna person. I cannot thank NMAI and IAIA enough for this gift. Tsin’aen—thank you.

—Melissa Shaginoff

 

To learn about Artist Leadership Program opportunities for mid-career artists and arts organizations, including detailed information on how to apply, see the Artist Leadership Program page on the museum’s website. Please note that this year's deadline for applications is Monday, May 5, 2014. 

The program Melissa and Charles have described is a prototype currently limited to applicants from Institute of American Indian Arts.

—Keevin Lewis 

Keevin Lewis (Navajo) is coordinator of the National Museum of the American Indian's Artist Leadership Program.

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March 14, 2014

Weaving and Protecting a History: A Conversation with Basket-Maker Kelly Church

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Baskets made by Kelly Church (Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Ojibwe). Photo courtesy of the artist.


So many Native American artists are generational, learning long-held artistic techniques from family elders and passing them on. This Saturday, March 15, will be an all-in-the-family event in part, when Kelly Church (Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Ojibwe) showcases her basketweaving skills during a day of demonstrations by Anishinaabe women artists at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York. Church will be joined by her daughter, Cherish Parrish (Match-E-B-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi), and by Jamie Brown (Pokagon Band of Potawatomi), Church's second cousin—both accomplished basket-makers in their own right.

Also featured at Saturday's event are painter Dawn Jackson (Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan), bead- and quillworker Naomi Smith (Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation), and basket-maker Whitney VanderWal (Pokagon Band of Potawatomi). The demonstrations are part of a series of programs happening throughout the day to complement the exhibition Before and after the Horizon: Anishinaabe Artists of the Great Lakeson view at the museum in New York through June 15.

Kelly Church's family has long been involved in weaving, using black ash wood to make cultural objects since the 1850s. Collectors' records confirm this lineal history, although photographic evidence came much later. "We made baskets before we made cameras"—these are the words that Church remembers passing from her "gramma's" lips to her ears. "We have a picture of my family working with a log and weaving as a group from 1919."

Church is extremely proud of her heritage. And why not? She was born into the largest black-ash basketmaking family in Michigan, so black ash has surrounded her since childhood. She learned to harvest it from her father and her cousin John Pigeon. Church later attended the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, the University of Michigan, and Western Michigan University. At college and in graduate school, she focused on painting, sculpture, and other forms. But it's nearly impossible to deny one's place in tradition. She returned to full-time basketmaking about 15 years ago.

The people of the Great Lakes region have made black ash a staple fiber in their weaving for centuries, says Church. "As Natives, we use what is available to us in our surroundings." Michigan's abundance of swamps and wetlands allow black ash trees to grow well there, she explains. Church works predominantly with black ash, basswood, birch bark, white and red cedar bark, sweet grass, cattails, and copper. She says her family owns a huge copper kettle once used for feasts and making maple syrup. "The purest copper in the world comes from the Great Lakes." Church began weaving copper into her baskets in 2008, and has recently begun to weave in silver, aluminum, brass, and gold embellishments on top of plaited black ash underlay. 

Church is mainly known for her woven strawberries and her black ash bracelets, but she also weaves frogs with lily pads, checkers games played by strawberry versus pinecone pieces, or ash wood frogs against cedar frogs. Most recently she began weaving baskets in the style of Fabergé eggs that open and contain other items within. While there are many new, intriguing ideas she wants to explore, Church also remains faithful to tradition, creating recognizable forms such as traditional baby baskets, black ash bark baskets, and market baskets. She carves Anishinaabe cradleboards and creates birch bark bitings, a form at which few people in North America are skilled. The technique involves using the eye teeth to bite traditional designs into thin layers of birch bark that are then woven into a variety of decorative objects. Church will demonstrate this process as well at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York this weekend.

What is it like to work with black ash? "Black ash is so pliable," says Church. "You can do just about anything you set your mind to with it." Church is amazed by the work of her daughter, Cherish Parrish. One of Parrish's sculptural baskets that takes the shape of a pregnant human figure—part of her Next Generation series—is on view in Before and after the Horizon. Parrish is able to create her tightly woven baskets because of the ease with which the material can be manipulated.

Beyond the Horizon: Anishinaabe Artists of the Great Lakes is all about the history of the varied art forms found in the area from the past to the present. It makes one ponder the kind of relationship the Anishinaabe people share with the black ash. "Black Ash baskets have always been woven according to the needs of the basket-makers at that time," Church explains. "So, in the past they were needed for gathering, carrying items from the market. . . . [People made] fishing creels, baby baskets, and sewing baskets. Later, they made fancier baskets to sell to tourists, as money was needed for staples—food, homes, and cloth for clothes." 

She says modern-day indigenous people of the Great Lakes make baskets for their own utilitarian purposes. Today's needs are somewhat different, but all in all, tradition finds its place with necessity. Fancy baskets are meant to be eye-catching and pleasing. As in days of old, they are made to sell on the collectors' market to help support the maker's family. "We are influenced and live in a much different world than our ancestors, but we honor them in all ways still," Church says. That includes harvesting trees by family, processing the materials together, and weaving baskets for use and shoonya (money). "We still lay down our saama (tobacco) and give our thanks. Our basket styles and shapes are influenced by our everyday lives."

While black ash basketmaking has endured for generations, it is now an endangered by the arrival of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive species of beetle that came to the Great Lakes region in the 1990s. Church is on a crusade to help preserve basketmaking for future generations by documenting the process, as well as how to identify and properly harvest and prepare black ash for weaving. Over the last deacde, she has been speaking at conferences to spread the word about the growing infestation and its impact on black ash basketweaving.

It is a tough battle with a long road ahead. "The EAB will kill 99 percent of the ash trees in the US, and collecting seeds now is the only way this tradition will continue in the future. We will end up skipping a generation in this process while we wait for EAB to die out or move on." Church says it will be necessary to replant the seeds in about 20 years, after which the new generations will have to wait another 30 to 50 years for the trees to grow to basketmaking size. A large part of her education effort involves kids who will have to reestablish the art form when they are 50 or 60 years old. Church will hold her fourth national conference to educate people about the EAB this fall.

At the same time, Church and other artsts have helped to keep basketweaving a living and ever-evolving art form. Basketweaving is gaining popularity in the Native American art world, and fine examples are highly sought by collectors. While adhering to tradition, Church says there is room for improvisation. She advises beginners who are interested in learning to look around to find materials with properties that can be used for weaving. "I weave baskets with vinyl blinds and ribbon, metals, paper . . . whatever is available and can be used!" She adds that the nature of weaving lends itself to relaxation. 

Church says she is excited about returning to the National Museum of the American Indian in New York this weekend. "We enjoy working with people and sharing our culture." The opportunity to show work and demonstrate skills at museums ". . . broadens people's knowledge about Natives and helps them to see the different styles of basketry, paintings, and art that we have." Beautiful as they are, basketmaking and other artforms tell a great deal about a people, their geography and past.  Humbly she expresses that demonstrations educate people on the nuances between different Native American cultures and serve to celebrate each unique culture and its arts.

Before and after the Horizon organizes objects using six curatorial concepts that frame entry points into Anishinaabe culture, including the idea of religion. When asked about the derivation of her surname, Church said "My last name is a mystery, but I did have a grandfather who was our Native preacher for all of his life . . . [His name was] Reverend Lewis White Eagle Church."

The artist demonstrations will take place at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York in the second floor Rotunda from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m Saturday. In addition, at 11 a.m. in the museum's West Gallery, Brooklyn-based Canadian artist Maria Hupfield (Wasuaksing First Nation) will present a site-specific 30-minute performance art realization as a "Living Tour Guide." At 2 p.m. in the Diker Pavilion, David Penney, curator of Before and after the Horizon, will moderate "A Dialogue on Anishinaabe Art," a panel discussion with artist and cultural theorist Robert Houle (Salteaux), author Gerald Vizenor (White Earth Nation), and curator Gerald McMaster (Plains Cree and member of the Siksika nation). Finally, from 5:30 to 7 p.m., visitors will be treated to the New York premiere of Robert's Paintings, a documentary by Shelley Niro (Mohawk) examining Robert Houle's life and work. A discussion with Houle will follow. Both the film and the discussion will take place in the Diker Pavilion. For more information about these and other programs celebrating Anishinaabe art, see the museum's calendar of events.

—Paul Niemi

Paul Niemi is an arts and culture writer and a Museum Ambassador at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York. The quotations in this piece are from Paul's recent email interview with Kelly Church.  

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March 10, 2014

Curatorial Residency at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC, or New York, NY—applications due April 15, 2014

Curatorial Residency 3Miles R. Miller (Yakama/Nez Perce), 2013 Curatorial Resident at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York, giving a public lecture on contemporary art. Photo by K. Ash-Milby (Navajo), NMAI. Used with permission. 

 
The National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) seeks applications for an 18-month paid residency for entry-level Native American museum professionals interested in pursuing museum careers or those early in established careers who feel they would benefit from a residency at NMAI. Applications are due by April 15, 2014. The successful candidate will be expected to begin in June 2014.
 
A successful candidate will demonstrate commitment to the museum profession through academic preparation, experience with paid or volunteer work at museums or community cultural centers, experience with exhibitions and/or collections research, and/or a track record of community-based scholarship. The curatorial resident will join the staff of the NMAI Museum Scholarship Group and will be assigned to exhibition development and/or collections research projects under the supervision of staff of the Museum Scholarship Group. The resident will enjoy all the privileges and responsibilities of the museum's professional staff, and work assignments will be created to assist with the development of professional skills necessary to the curatorial profession.
 
Applications should include:
 
1) complete curriculum vitae or professional resume;
2) a letter of support from an academic or community-based sponsor or mentor; 
3) an essay of no more than 1,200 words describing:
a) the candidate’s career goals for museum work;
b) what the candidate hopes to gain from the residency experience; and
c) why the National Museum of the American Indian in particular can play an important role in the candidate’s career development.
 
Consideration will be given to candidates who can demonstrate how their experience will benefit their communities.
 
Compensation for the residency will be competitive with entry-level museum appointments in the Washington, D.C., and New York City areas, accompanied by a benefits package including health insurance. The residency includes travel funds for professional development and participation in professional conferences, to be determined in consultation with supervision. Candidates must be American citizens or eligible to work legally in the United States.
 
Send applications to:

Patricia Scott, NMAI Cultural Resources Center, 4220 Silver Hill Road, Suitland, MD 20746-2863
 

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Do I have to be Native American to apply for this residency?

February 06, 2014

"Re-Discovering" Thomas Henry Tibbles

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Portrait of T. H. Tibbles. Thomas Henry Tibbles papers (NMAI.AC.066), National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution.

When records from NMAI’s predecessor institution, the Museum of the American Indian (MAI), Heye Foundation, were first processed and described, it was as one very large collection. Previous blog posts here and here describe what a massive undertaking it was to make these records accessible to researchers. One of my jobs over this past year has been to identify small stand-alone collections that don’t belong in the MAI institutional records and deserve their own collection record and finding aid. Identifying and highlighting these collections will make them easier both to find online and to research in person. 

The Thomas Henry Tibbles papers are a perfect example of this type of collection. Thomas Tibbles was a crucial player in bringing the habeas corpus case of Standing Bear and the Ponca people before the U.S. District Court in 1879. Tibbles, who worked at the time as a journalist for the Omaha Daily Herald, publicized the unlawful removal of the Ponca from their lands to Indian Territory and the subsequent arrest of Standing Bear and 30 other Ponca when they returned to Nebraska.

The Tibbles papers include correspondence Tibbles sent out to rally support for the Ponca, as well as hand-written drafts of lectures and talks, newspaper clippings, and photographs. Also included is a small amount of writing by Susette La Flesche (Omaha), daughter of Chief Joseph La Flesche.

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Excerpt from a letter by Susette La Flesche to T. H. Tibbles. April 29, 1879. Thomas Henry Tibbles papers (NMAI.AC.066), National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution.

Susette, also known as Bright Eyes, worked closely alongside Tibbles to publicize the conditions of the Ponca’s removal and treatment. She served as Chief Standing Bear’s interpreter during his habeas corpus trial and eventually accompanied him on a speaking tour, organized by Tibbles. She distinguished herself as an orator speaking on Native American rights. Tibbles and La Flesche married in 1881 and her wedding dress can be seen in Infinity of Nations at the George Gustav Heye Center in New York City. 

Tibbles continued to write and edit for various publications in Nebraska until his death in 1928. In 1939, Tibbles’s grandson, Chester Barris, began contacting editors about his grandfather’s autobiography, Buckskin and Blanket Days: Memoirs of a Friend of the Indians. Although Barris did not live to see the book in print, his wife managed to get it published in 1957 by the University of Nebraska Press. Following the publication, Vivien Barris corresponded with Frederick Dockstader, director of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, and deposited the papers of her late husband’s grandfather into the care of the museum. 

 

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Illustration of Standing Bear, from His History, undated. Thomas Henry Tibbles papers (NMAI.AC.066), National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution.

More than 50 years later, this collection is getting some much deserved care. The photographs are being moved into climate-controlled storage for preservation purposes, and some of the more fragile documents were treated by paper conservators last spring. A new collection record is now up on the Smithsonian Collections Search Site, and a detailed finding aid is in the works. For more information on this collection contact the NMAI Archive Center

Rachel Menyuk, archives technician, NMAI Archive Center


This post also appears on the Smithsonian Collections Blog.

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