October 07, 2014

“So, what’s up with all those questions about treaties on columns throughout the museum?”

Treaties interactive a1
What's the story behind the purple columns around the museum? We're glad you asked. They're interactive learning stations for the
new exhibition Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American
Indian Nations,
 and we hope they'll prompt visitors to keep asking questions.

American Indian treaties are a topic about which visitors have a lot of interest and curiosity. Engage them in a conversation about treaties, and they will often shake their heads and say, “Oh yeah, those,” and then begin to ask questions: “Are treaties still valid?” “Do treaties give American Indians special rights?” “Aren’t treaties bad for American Indians?” “Weren’t all the treaties just broken anyway?” Starting with such foundational questions, the exhibit team that produced Nation to Nation” Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations is using a well-known educational strategy to attract visitors to the major new exhibition on view in Washington through fall 2018.

On the Potomac level and on the 3rd and 4th floors of the museum, selected columns have been painted “wampum purple”—a Nation to Nation design theme—festooned with the flags of Native Nations, and fitted with wooden interactives that pose and answer important questions about treaties. The purpose of these treaties stations is to pique visitors’ interest in the Nation to Nation exhibit. But their content is not just typical Q & A. 

The treaties stations employ an educational technique known as “inquiry-based learning.” The idea behind this approach is to engage learners in a discovery of the content, instead of just telling them everything you want them to know. The “telling” approach is not the most effective educational strategy and often results in something my mother used to characterize as “going in one ear and coming out the other.” Inquiry-based learning begins with something that is compelling—for example, an image, a question, an object, or a combination thereof—then encourages people to explore it. 

Interactive 1b Interactive 1c

Interactive-1-d
Panels from a treaties interactive. (Click
each image for a larger view.)

 

 

 

 

 

 


 


At each treaties station, visitors are engaged with a question and image or images related to treaties (above, left). Visitors then rotate the panel manually, but instead of finding the answer on the next panel, they find a new image, quotation, or excerpt from a historical document—something that requires them to think again (above, right). Visitors then rotate the mechanism to a final panel, where the answer is revealed and a more detailed explanation is offered (right)

Each of the treaties station columns has the words “Find out more in the Nation to Nation exhibit,” stenciled on it. Our hope is that more visitors will be intrigued to learn what is inside the exhibit by interacting with these important treaty questions outside the exhibit. We plan to evaluate the interactives’ effectiveness in a formal way.

So, when you visit the museum, try them out. We hope that they’ll help you build your basic knowledge about treaties and that you’ll find yourself thinking about the history of treaties and their ongoing importance before you even reach the exhibit on the 4th floor. 

Then let us know what you think.

—Ed Schupman            

Ed Schupman is a citizen of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation of Oklahoma and works in the museum's education department supporting exhibit teams and developing resources for K–12 students and teachers.

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October 03, 2014

Behind Every Great Object, There’s a Great Mount

By Joshua Stevens

The little things in life make all the difference, and those who work behind the scenes building the museum’s exhibitions know it all too well. Every small detail has an impact on a visitor’s experience, which translates to the success of an installation. Yet these details are also those that for many of us go unseen.

November approaches, and with it the unveiling of NMAI New York’s newest exhibition, Glittering World: Navajo Jewelry of the Yazzie Family. Staff members across the museum and outside specialists are working to ensure that each piece in the exhibition shines flawlessly, telling the story not only of a family, but of a highly refined art form. 

Kelly McHugh, an NMAI conservator, shared photos from the museum’s Mount Shop showing the custom-made brass components that will be used to support the nearly 300 pieces of contemporary Navajo jewelry the exhibition contains—rings, bracelets, necklaces, and a variety of other jeweled accessories—as well as objects from the museum's collections that provide historical context. The snapshots below show the many different mounts the exhibition requires. Specific exhibit case numbers are written alongside the mounts on the ethafoam that supports them while they are in transit from the museum’s collections, conservation, and research facility in Maryland to the museum in New York. 

Glittering World object mounts 1

Glittering World object mounts 2Glittering World object mounts 3

Glittering World object mounts 4
Object mounts made by master mountmaker Bob Fuglestad and his colleagues Bill Mead, Bill Bowser, and Jon Pressler, and by the museum's staff mountmaker, Shelly Uhlir, for the exhbition Glittering World: Navajo Jewelry of the Yazzie Family. The mounts were constructed at the museum's Cultural Resources Center in Maryland, then grouped by exhibit case for installation at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York. Photos by Duane Blue Spruce, NMAI.


More than 350 mounts were made for Glittering World, most by master mountmaker Bob Fuglestad and his team of Bill Mead, Bill Bowser, and Jon Pressler. The museum's staff mountmaker, Shelly Uhlir, made a number of mounts, as well. Shelly describes what the project entailed:

The majority of the mounts are crafted from silver-soldered brass, which is then covered with multiple layers of acrylic coating to make sure the objects have a safe place to rest. Each mount is custom designed and fit specifically to each piece of jewelry, then painted to conceal the work. 

They are hand-made works of art in themselves, but the best mounts are the ones the viewer doesn’t easily see!

Glittering World debuts Thursday, November 13, at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York and will run until January 2016. The NMAI blog will continue to post exclusive behind-the-scenes content as the opening nears. You can also view the exhibition trailer and join the conversation with the museum on Facebook and Twitter, #GlitteringWorld. Let us know if there’s something you want to know! 


Joshua Stevens is Public Affairs specialist at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York.

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September 30, 2014

This Day in the Maya Calendar: October 2014

Cholq'ij, the Maya sacred ceremonial calendar of 260 days—a cycle of 20 Day deities and 13 numbers—is the basis of the Maya spirituality that survives to this time, practiced daily among millions of Maya people, in thousands of communities. The interpretation of the days can vary from one Maya people to another. The interpretations given here are based on sustained conversations and participation over three decades with Maya Q'eqchi calendar priest Roderico Teni and daykeeping families in the area of Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, by Jose Barreiro (Taíno), head of NMAI’s Office of Latin America, and his wife, Katsi Cook (Mohawk). Glyphs representing the Day lords appear throughout Maya Country; these were painted by Esteban Pop Caal (Q'eqchi Maya) of Cobán.

For more background to this series, please see Jose's introduction, "Living in the Practice." For further insight into the role of the Day lords in everyday life, please see the Maya Journal. For the complete year so far, please see the Maya calendar archive.

Illustrations: Esteban Pop Caal (Q'eqchi Maya), calendar glyphs. Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala; 2003. Paint on wood. Purchased from the artist. 26/2685. Photos by Ernest Amoroso, NMAI 

7 Kawoq  |  Friday, October 31, 2014 

262685_Kawoq

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 7 Kawoq. Kawoq is Turtle, also Sky Serpent; 7 is a pivotal number. Kawoq is a high woman day—a day of duality in all of nature and a guardian of contentment. It is the day of woman and man, lightning and thunder, fecundity and imagination; a day of midwives; a day of prayer for unity within the home, strength within the family, renewed strength for convalescents, and the smoothing of all irritation. This is a good day to turn bad medicine back on itself. Kawoq attends to young women in pregnancy, labor, and delivery, and to full realization for all women; it is a day of their sash. Kawoq is also a good day to commemorate the Staff of Authority, a good day for the men of a family and community to pray for the coffers (good fortune) of the women and for the protection of the home. Good midwives, writers, and architects are born on this day. —Jose Barreiro  

6 Tijax  |  Thursday, October 30, 2014

262685_TijaxCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 6 Tijax. Tijax is Fish, also Obsidian; 6 is a middle, even number. Tijax is a day of doctors, good to pray for surgeons and all medical practitioners; a day of sacrifice and liberation from suffering; a day of sharp, cutting objects, of knives and scalpels and scissors. Tijax is a safeguard for domestic animals against predators, a good day to pray for all animals that are sacrificed, both in ceremony and in everyday life. Tijax is a good day to use metal (a machete, scissors) to "open the sky"—to solicit rain, solicit life, split black clouds. Gossip, calumny, and sorcery, on money and sexual matters, can be overcome on this day; on a high-number day, disputes can turn public and become debilitating. Tijax is a good day for seasoned masters to fortify daykeeping trainees against ridicule by envious countrymen or evangelicos. It is not a good day to plant. —J. B.  

5 Noj  |  Wednesday, October 29, 2014

262685_NojCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 5 Noj. Noj is Woodpecker; 5 is one hand. Noj is a woman's highest intelligence. Maya knowledge and wisdom live in this day—good science to support positive deeds, good projects, good business, a good home. On Noj good ideas are available through the intelligence connected to the movement of the earth. Boys born on this day have important female qualities and can be attentive to the knowledge of nature, which rules all. Girls born on this day can be clear leaders. This is a good day to hear advice and make decisions, a good day to feed the mind, recognize curiosity, and strengthen memory. Noj is one of the four Yearbearers. —J. B. 

4 Ajmac  |  Tuesday, October 28, 2014

262685_AjmacCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 4 Ajmac. Ajmac is Bee, also Vulture; 4 is a balance. On Ajmac ancestor spirits can detect and smooth the thread of time in our lives. Prudence, intelligence, ancient wisdom are in this day. This is a day to plead forgiveness for serious faults and to be judged. It is a day that demands moral rectitude, respect, and sincere analysis. On this day our faults (stains) must be faced and paid for; humble request for pity is encouraged. Ajmac is a propitious day for the women of a household to make peace with one another after conflict, to apologize for sharp words; it is a good day to pray for smooth relationships and the renewal of agreements among women. Hard luck can face those born on Ajmac. —J. B. 

3 Tz'ikin  |  Monday, October 27, 2014

262685_Tz'ikinCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 3 Tz'ikin. Tz'ikin is Bird, best represented by the Hummingbird, also the Quetzal and Eagle; 3 is a rotor. Tz'ikin carries messages between the Heart of Earth and Heart of Sky. Cold, heat, light, air, cloud are its elements. Love, intuition, precognition are strong in those born on this day. Tz'ikin is a good day for humans to follow birds to the corn—to find good material luck. This is a good day to ask for revelation and intelligence, for vision, and for abundance; a good day to ask for collaboration in projects or for personal freedom. On this day, women have the privilege to ask for their husbands and sons to triple the family money. —J. B.

2 I'x  |  Sunday, October 26, 2014 

262685_I'x

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 2 I'x. I'x is Jaguar; 2 is duality. I'x is woman's energy day. This is a day to connect with your own land and to pray for its original owners; to pray for and appreciate your house; to pray for the finances to buy and sustain land; to ask for fertility in humans and animals; to request vigor and strength for reproductive organs, particularly female. I'x is a good day to pray to the mountains in favor of the land. It is a good day for a woman to request strength in her husband's commitment to matrimonial stability. People born on I'x have a close relationship to el Mundo and receive good access to precious metals. I'x is a good day for solitude and meditation. —J. B. 

1 Aj  |  Saturday, October 25, 2014 

262685_AjCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 1 Aj. Aj is Cane Reed; 1 is the beginning. Aj begins the women's cycle, sentiments of family and home, the spinal cord. Aj is life and receives life. This is a day of resurgence and renewal, as in the reed and the corn; a day for the triumph of good over evil, life over death; a day of happiness, renewal of food, money, the heart of life. People born on this day renew their communities; they are sickly as children and sturdy as adults; they are especially lucky; they are good awakeners of their families and communities; they make good midwives. Aj is a good day to ask for clarity of destiny, a good day to pray for the protection of your life and of the newborn, a good day to pray for twins, a good day to pray for humanity. —J. B. 

13 Eh  |  Friday, October 24, 2014

262685_Eh

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 13 Eh. Eh is Bobcat, also the Path and the Tooth; 13 is the highest turbulence. Eh can orient individuals, groups, or communities to their destiny. Eh is the day to ask for protection from dangers and obstructions during travels—specifically, that on your road the attention of thieves or highway police or border inspectors will be deviated from your trajectory. Solitude is in Eh, light rain, kindness, alignment. People born on this day can be good counselors, spiritual guides with the gift of prayer to Ajaw (Creator) on the destiny of things. Also, good dentists are born on this day. Eh is one of the four pillars of the 20 days, a Yearbearer—a strong, especially sacred day. A prayer started in Batz can be carried by Eh through the full cycle of 20 days. —J. B. 

12 Batz  |  Thursday, October 23, 2014

262685_BatzCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 12 Batz. Batz is Monkey; 12 is the highest balance. Monkey braid, monkey fingers, monkey tail, Batz is the grasp of the monkey's hand so tight and braided the fist will not let go, even in death. Batz is a good day for beginnings, and for some Maya daykeepers, Batz begins the 20-day calendar. Batz is unity, a good day to tie things together, a good day for a marriage or to start a construction, a good day for initiation into the ways. Batz is the thread of time that rolls out from under the earth, weaving life until cut, weaving time into history. People born on Batz are calm and self-confident; they make good spiritual guides and leaders, and goodhearted architects. —J. B. 

11 Tzi  |  Wednesday, October 22, 2014

6a01156f5f4ba1970b019b04c65ab2970d-200wiCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 11 Tzi. Tzi is the Canine, the guardian; 11 is high turbulence. Dog, Wolf, Coyote, Tzi can be snarly, terrifying the unprepared with his bark and his bite. Tzi people are zealous to guard the sacredness of ceremony, to identify and punish "intruders," those not disciplined to participate. Benevolent to friends and fierce to enemies, Tzi is steady to reward or punish. Tzi will punish those who disrespect the Days and the spirit of the family. This is a good day to ask for mystic insight for leaders so that they can seek and discover hidden things, so that they can be just. Tzi has strong sexual energy, hard to restrain. When this energy is defined, people born on Tzi make loyal friends, husbands, and wives. —J. B. 

10 Toj  |  Tuesday, October 21, 2014

262685_TojCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 10 Toj. Toj is the mystic Fish—the tear of jade and drops of rain, water falling; 10 is a high balance. Toj is a day of making even, a good day to pay spiritual and financial debts and to collect what you are owed. This is a day of evenness for a family, a good day for parents to pay the family's debt to el Mundo, good for the oldest son to appreciate the father and the father to appreciate the mountain. Illness can be deviated from the family by making a ceremonial offering on this day. —J. B. 

9 Anil  |  Monday, October 20, 2014

262685_AnilCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 9 Anil. Anil is the fertility in the seed, Anil is Rabbit; 9 is a triple rotor. Anil is red, white, yellow, black—the four colors of corn, the seed of life that is the unity of the world. Anil is renewal after death, regeneration of the earth. Anil people are four-directions people and can be good travelers. This is a day of coming back, a day to generate and appreciate abundance, a day of declaring love to create a new relationship, a day to announce the wish to do business, a day of finding lost things, a day to ask for help in overcoming shyness. —J. B. 

8 Kiej  |  Sunday, October 19, 2014 

262685_Kiej

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 8 Kiej. Kiej is the Deer; 8 is double balance. Kiej is the four directions, four hoofs striking the earth at once, the quaternity of the cosmos linked to prayer, highest aviso to el Mundo—the living world. Kiej is the staff of authority, keen energy of a chief to detect danger, perception of the leader buck, his horns. Kiej is a good day to pray for mental and physical agility, a day of agile travelers and good communicators. It is a day also to ask for clarity before gossip and ill intentions. A major gift of nature, Kiej holds indefatigable energy. He is one of the four main carriers of time. —J. B. 

7 Kame  |  Saturday, October 18, 2014 

262685_KameCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 7 Kame. Kame is the Owl and the recognition of death; 7 is a pivotal number. A day that recalls the night, tranquility, and silence, Kame is a good day to ask for the ancient and recent ancestors who have gone on, to thank them, and to remember them with purpose. This is an appropriate day to extend reconciliation, to feel and give forgiveness, to develop patience, to invoke against mortal illnesses, to access superior knowledge. Without fear, it is a good day to approach the spiritual dimension, "the enchantment." —J. B. 

6 Kan  |  Friday, October 17, 2014 

262685_KanCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 6 Kan. Kan is the Snake; 6 is a middle, even number. Kan is the ancient origin—Gucumatz, the Plumed Serpent. This is a day of strict and impartial justice, a day of definition and maturity, and a good day to offer respect and to thank the corn. On Kan, matters of justice, judges, and courts can be cleared up. This is a good day to pray that truth and justice are manifest in the Heart of Sky, Heart of Earth; a good day to put aside jealousies and request equilibrium in life and in the family. It is a day to ask for physical strength and patience, to contemplate our spiritual evolution, and to rekindle the internal fire. —J. B. 

5 Kat  |  Thursday, October 16, 2014

262685_KatCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 5 Kat. Kat is Spider, also Web and Fire; 5 is one hand. On Kat the unity of the people is paramount, and knowledge is deepened. Kat is the network of the sacred heart, the family hearth. Today is a good day to pray for your family fireplace, the spirit of the fire that belongs in the home, the one that calls other spirits to ceremony and speaks for them. Kat is the net that hauls in the fish and the net that holds the ears of corn, a day that can bring the fruition of things and the untangling of complications. This is a good day to help free prisoners from captivity, to request vigor and power for the weak. —J. B. 

4 Aqbal  |  Wednesday, October 15, 2014

262685_AqbalCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 4 Aqbal. Aqbal is the Dawn, also Bat; 4 is a balance. Aqbal is clarity, the separation of darkness and light as the Sun disperses the fog and obscurity of night. This is a good day to ask for a peaceful and happy daybreak, a day to find hidden and lost things, a day to wash away tears of sadness. On Aqbal, the sacred fire is recognized and appreciated. Aqbal is a good day to clean the ashes (renew the heart) of a fireplace and to present a new baby to el Mundo. A potential bride or groom can be revealed on this day. Harvesting of corn can begin on this day. People born on Aqbal relate in the present and are a special link between past and future. They are early risers, good workers, tranquil and kind, strong before an enemy, good researchers and finders of hidden things, often called "the candle of the home." —J. B. 

3 Iq  |  Tuesday, October 14, 2014

262685_IqCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 3 Iq. Iq is Wind, also Moon; 3 is a rotor. Wind is powerful, violent, driven of itself, identity. A day of strong emotion, Iq is also a healing day. Good wind is nutritional for human minds; it is the mystic breath and vital inspiration of nature. On Iq, a breeze or wind that splits against your face is a blessing and a cleansing to purge your head and body of illness. Respiratory ills are prayed over on this day. This is a good day to appreciate all of Creation. The Day lord Iq is one of the four Yearbearers, or mams, a creator who helped finish the world and put breath (essence) in human beings. People born on Iq are inclined toward spiritual ways and can impulsively tap into cosmic sources. —J. B. 

2 Imox  |  Monday, October 13, 2014

262685_ImoxCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 2 Imox. Imox is Lizard; 2 is duality. Imox is the very force of gravity and a good day to pray for creativity and for rain. Imox can open el Mundo to receive cosmic messages. Known as a "crazy" day, Imox requires much concentration and control. A day of high male intelligence, also impatience and agitation, Imox can be difficult. Grounded on its left side, left arm, this day is easily unbalanced and in need of clasping by left and right hands. Imox can be good if held in the balance of the Heart of Sky and Heart of Earth; unattended, Imox can manifest imbalance, mental nervousness, and even death. People born on Imox are open and sincere, but indecisive—in need of ceremony to set the positive to override the negative. —Jose Barreiro 

1 Ajpu  |  Sunday, October 12, 2014

262685_AjpuCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 1 Ajpu. Ajpu is Caracol, Spiral Shell; 1 is the beginning. Ajpu is the Sun, captain of time, a day of personal strength and for good to triumph over evil. Ajpu, who cares for boys and guides men, begins the men's cycle. This is a day to connect with the ancestors, who can reward and punish. Death is reachable and amenable; spirits can ask permission to enter el Mundo, the living world. Day of the warrior and blowgun hunter (cerbatanero), Ajpu is the strong blow of the dart that hits its target, a good day to pray for stealth or for a break in enemy lines. Ajpu is also a good day to start building on a house, a good day to make prayers for women and for success in lactation. —J. B. 

13 Kawoq  |  Saturday, October 11, 2014 

262685_Kawoq

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 13 Kawoq. Kawoq is Turtle, also Sky Serpent; 13 is the highest turbulence. Kawoq is a high woman day—a day of duality in all of nature and a guardian of contentment. It is the day of woman and man, lightning and thunder, fecundity and imagination; a day of midwives; a day of prayer for unity within the home, strength within the family, renewed strength for convalescents, and the smoothing of all irritation. This is a good day to turn bad medicine back on itself. Kawoq attends to young women in pregnancy, labor, and delivery, and to full realization for all women; it is a day of their sash. Kawoq is also a good day to commemorate the Staff of Authority, a good day for the men of a family and community to pray for the coffers (good fortune) of the women and for the protection of the home. Good midwives, writers, and architects are born on this day. —J. B.  

12 Tijax  |  Friday, October 10, 2014

262685_TijaxCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 12 Tijax. Tijax is Fish, also Obsidian; 12 is the highest balance. Tijax is a day of doctors, good to pray for surgeons and all medical practitioners; a day of sacrifice and liberation from suffering; a day of sharp, cutting objects, of knives and scalpels and scissors. Tijax is a safeguard for domestic animals against predators, a good day to pray for all animals that are sacrificed, both in ceremony and in everyday life. Tijax is a good day to use metal (a machete, scissors) to "open the sky"—to solicit rain, solicit life, split black clouds. Gossip, calumny, and sorcery, on money and sexual matters, can be overcome on this day; on a high-number day, disputes can turn public and become debilitating. Tijax is a good day for seasoned masters to fortify daykeeping trainees against ridicule by envious countrymen or evangelicos. It is not a good day to plant. —J. B.  

11 Noj  |  Thursday, October 9, 2014

262685_NojCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 11 Noj. Noj is Woodpecker; 11 is high turbulence. Noj is a woman's highest intelligence. Maya knowledge and wisdom live in this day—good science to support positive deeds, good projects, good business, a good home. On Noj good ideas are available through the intelligence connected to the movement of the earth. Boys born on this day have important female qualities and can be attentive to the knowledge of nature, which rules all. Girls born on this day can be clear leaders. This is a good day to hear advice and make decisions, a good day to feed the mind, recognize curiosity, and strengthen memory. Noj is one of the four Yearbearers. —J. B. 

10 Ajmac  |  Wednesday, October 8, 2014

262685_AjmacCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 10 Ajmac. Ajmac is Bee, also Vulture; 10 is a high balance. On Ajmac ancestor spirits can detect and smooth the thread of time in our lives. Prudence, intelligence, ancient wisdom are in this day. This is a day to plead forgiveness for serious faults and to be judged. It is a day that demands moral rectitude, respect, and sincere analysis. On this day our faults (stains) must be faced and paid for; humble request for pity is encouraged. Ajmac is a propitious day for the women of a household to make peace with one another after conflict, to apologize for sharp words; it is a good day to pray for smooth relationships and the renewal of agreements among women. Hard luck can face those born on Ajmac. —J. B. 

9 Tz'ikin  |  Tuesday, October 7, 2014

262685_Tz'ikinCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 9 Tz'ikin. Tz'ikin is Bird, best represented by the Hummingbird, also the Quetzal and Eagle; 9 is a triple rotor. Tz'ikin carries messages between the Heart of Earth and Heart of Sky. Cold, heat, light, air, cloud are its elements. Love, intuition, precognition are strong in those born on this day. Tz'ikin is a good day for humans to follow birds to the corn—to find good material luck. This is a good day to ask for revelation and intelligence, for vision, and for abundance; a good day to ask for collaboration in projects or for personal freedom. On this day, women have the privilege to ask for their husbands and sons to triple the family money. —J. B.  

8 I'x  |  Monday, October 6, 2014 

262685_I'x

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 8 I'x. I'x is Jaguar; 8 is a balance. I'x is woman's energy day. This is a day to connect with your own land and to pray for its original owners; to pray for and appreciate your house; to pray for the finances to buy and sustain land; to ask for fertility in humans and animals; to request vigor and strength for reproductive organs, particularly female. I'x is a good day to pray to the mountains in favor of the land. It is a good day for a woman to request strength in her husband's commitment to matrimonial stability. People born on I'x have a close relationship to el Mundo and receive good access to precious metals. I'x is a good day for solitude and meditation. —J. B.  

7 Aj  |  Sunday, October 5, 2014 

262685_AjCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 7 Aj. Aj is Cane Reed; 7 is a pivotal number. Aj begins the women's cycle, sentiments of family and home, the spinal cord. Aj is life and receives life. This is a day of resurgence and renewal, as in the reed and the corn; a day for the triumph of good over evil, life over death; a day of happiness, renewal of food, money, the heart of life. People born on this day renew their communities; they are sickly as children and sturdy as adults; they are especially lucky; they are good awakeners of their families and communities; they make good midwives. Aj is a good day to ask for clarity of destiny, a good day to pray for the protection of your life and of the newborn, a good day to pray for twins, a good day to pray for humanity. —J. B.  

6 Eh  |  Saturday, October 4, 2014

262685_Eh

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 6 Eh. Eh is Bobcat, also the Path and the Tooth; 6 is a middle, even number. Eh can orient individuals, groups, or communities to their destiny. Eh is the day to ask for protection from dangers and obstructions during travels—specifically, that on your road the attention of thieves or highway police or border inspectors will be deviated from your trajectory. Solitude is in Eh, light rain, kindness, alignment. People born on this day can be good counselors, spiritual guides with the gift of prayer to Ajaw (Creator) on the destiny of things. Also, good dentists are born on this day. Eh is one of the four pillars of the 20 days, a Yearbearer—a strong, especially sacred day. A prayer started in Batz can be carried by Eh through the full cycle of 20 days. —J. B.  

5 Batz  |  Friday, October 3, 2014

262685_BatzCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 5 Batz. Batz is Monkey; 5 is one hand. Monkey braid, monkey fingers, monkey tail, Batz is the grasp of the monkey's hand so tight and braided the fist will not let go, even in death. Batz is a good day for beginnings, and for some Maya daykeepers, Batz begins the 20-day calendar. Batz is unity, a good day to tie things together, a good day for a marriage or to start a construction, a good day for initiation into the ways. Batz is the thread of time that rolls out from under the earth, weaving life until cut, weaving time into history. People born on Batz are calm and self-confident; they make good spiritual guides and leaders, and goodhearted architects. —J. B. 

4 Tzi  |  Thursday, October 2, 2014

6a01156f5f4ba1970b019b04c65ab2970d-200wiCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 4 Tzi. Tzi is the Canine, the guardian; 4 is a balance. Dog, Wolf, Coyote, Tzi can be snarly, terrifying the unprepared with his bark and his bite. Tzi people are zealous to guard the sacredness of ceremony, to identify and punish "intruders," those not disciplined to participate. Benevolent to friends and fierce to enemies, Tzi is steady to reward or punish. Tzi will punish those who disrespect the Days and the spirit of the family. This is a good day to ask for mystic insight for leaders so that they can seek and discover hidden things, so that they can be just. Tzi has strong sexual energy, hard to restrain. When this energy is defined, people born on Tzi make loyal friends, husbands, and wives. —J. B. 

3 Toj  |  Wednesday, October 1, 2014

262685_TojCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 3 Toj. Toj is the mystic Fish—the tear of jade and drops of rain, water falling; 3 is a rotor. Toj is a day of making even, a good day to pay spiritual and financial debts and to collect what you are owed. This is a day of evenness for a family, a good day for parents to pay the family's debt to el Mundo, good for the oldest son to appreciate the father and the father to appreciate the mountain. Illness can be deviated from the family by making a ceremonial offering on this day. —J. B. 

 

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"Tzi people are zealous to guard the sacredness of ceremony, to identify and punish "intruders," those not disciplined to participate. Benevolent to friends and fierce to enemies, Tzi is steady to reward or punish"
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September 25, 2014

Meet Native America: Robert J. Moody Jr., Vice Chairman of the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh 
 

Please introduce yourself with your name and title. 

Robert J. Moody Jr., vice chairman of the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians

Robert J. Moody Jr.
Robert J. Moody Jr., vice chairman of the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians.

What is your name in your language, and what does it mean? 

It's Migisi Nag Wiid Disowen, which means My Eyes Are the Eyes of the Eagle, or Eagle Vision. 

Where is your tribe located? 

Southwestern Michigan and northern Indiana. That area is also where we are originally from. 

What is a significant point in history from your people that you would like to share? 

Leopold Pokagon negotiated the 1833 Treaty of Chicago, which secured the right of the tribe to remain in Michigan and not be removed to the west. In 1994 the federal government, through congressional legislation, restored all rights to the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi as a federally recognized tribe. 

How is the Pokagon Band government set up? 

The Pokagon government consists of a legislative branch—the Tribal Council—and a judicial branch—the Tribal Court. Our Tribal Council consists of a chairman, vice chairman, treasurer, secretary, six members at large, and an elders’ representative. We have a total of eleven seats on our Tribal Council. 

Is there a functional, traditional entity of leadership in addition to your modern government system? 

We have an Elders Council. We also have many pipecarriers and a very active veterans group

How often are elected leaders chosen? 

As provided by our Tribal Constitution, we have staggered, three-year terms of office. Tribal elections are held every July. 

How often does your Tribal Council meet? 

Tribal Council meets once a week, generally on a Monday, with an additional meeting on the second Saturday of each month. All meetings are open to tribal citizens. Meetings are also webcast for those who may not have the opportunity to attend. 

How did your life experience prepare you to lead your band? 

In the early 1980s, I began to be involved with tribal politics along with my grandmother. I served as a Tribal Council member at large until the 1990s. Late in the 1990s I was honored to serve as the tribal chairman. My service was shared with responsibilities and activities on many boards and committees of the tribe. Restoration of our sovereignty provided many challenges as to the proper structuring and implementation of government and government services for our citizens. 

Vice Chairman Moody at Pokegnet Edawat
Vice Chairman Moody at the opening celebration for 32 new homes built for Pokagon citizens at the tribal village Pokégnet Édawat. October 30, 2013; Pokagon Band Community Center, Dowagiac, Michigan. 

 

What responsibilities do you have as a tribal leader? 

As vice chairman, I have the duty, first and foremost, to work for the people, tribal citizens, and for many generations to come. The day-to-day activities consist of meetings, correspondence, giving direction, consideration and development of new legislation, representing the tribe, and fulfilling all duties of the office in the absence of the chairman. 

Who inspired you? 

My mother and my father, along with my grandmother and my uncle, were all my mentors. Leopold Pokagon and his vision have always been a deep inspiration and guide in my life. 

Are you a descendant of a historical leader? If so, who? 

My great-grandfather, R. C. Mix, was instrumental in working with the federal government to reinstate our rights. He served on Tribal Council in the 1950s and was an inspiration to me. One of the foremost reasons I got into tribal leadership was to pick up his crusade and continue it. 

Approximately how many members are in the Pokagon Band? 

As of August of this year, the citizen or membership count is 4,936. 

What are the criteria to become a member of your band? 

Although tribal rolls are now closed, the criterion for membership is that one must provide documentation of relationship to any of the names appearing on the Cadmun Roll of 1895 or the Shelby Roll of 1896. 

Is your language still spoken on your homelands? If so, what percentage of your people would you estimate are fluent speakers?

Our language is still spoken on our homelands. There are a few fluent elder speakers, and although the tribe has many other speakers, we continue working towards making Potawatomi the first language and English the second. Not only do we offer weekly Potawatomi classes in several locations to many age groups—including our Head Start students—we have two language apprentices who live and study with native speakers. Once they are finished with their apprenticeship, the two will be fluent speakers and will teach other Pokagons the language.  

What economic enterprises does the Pokagon Band own? 

Four Winds Casino, with locations in New Buffalo, Hartford, and Dowagiac, Michigan, provides economic sustainability and fuels the needs of our current citizenship, with the commitment to provide for several generations to come. The tribe's economic development authority, Mno Bamadsen, was chartered in 2007 to diversify economic development opportunities; it is the non-gaming economic arm of our tribe. Currently Mno Bamadsen owns and operates Seven Generations Architecture & Engineering, Bent Tree convenience store and gas station, and Accu Mold LLC plastic engineering. Mno Bamadsen is certified under the Small Business Association 8(a) program and is qualified for other contracting incentives under the U. S. Code. 

Robert Moody Jr. at Kee-Boon-Mein-Kaa Pow Wow
Bob Moody dancing in the competition at the Kee-Boon-Mein-Kaa Pow Wow. August 2014; Rodgers Lake campus, Dowagiac, Michigan.

What annual events does the Pokagon Band sponsor? 

Oshke-Kno-Kewewen, our traditional powwow, is held every Memorial Day weekend at our powwow grounds. We host a contest powwow, Kee-Boon-Mein-Kaa, every Labor Day weekend. We also reach out to many surrounding communities and sponsor various charities, events, and causes, like the Four Winds Invitational Ladies PGA golf tournament, which helps support Memorial Children's Hospital in South Bend, Indiana. 

What attractions are available for visitors on your land? 

Our tribal campuses include a campground, lakes, administration offices, 64 homes, a community center, Head Start facilities, Tribal Court, sports fields, and playgrounds. In November we’ll open a 36,000-square-foot health center featuring a clinic, a pharmacy, behavioral health, dental services, optical services, and a fitness and therapy center. In addition we have the casinos mentioned earlier in New Buffalo, Hartford, and Dowagiac. 

How does the Pokagon Band deal with the United States as a sovereign nation? 

We utilize and exercise our sovereign in every capacity. 

What message would you like to share with the youth of your band? 

Be aware and understand tribal issues and the importance of these issues as they relate to your family, your clan, and your nation. You are the leaders of tomorrow. 

Is there anything else you would like to add? 

Igwein—thank you—for this opportunity to share in a humble manner. 

Thank you. 


All photographs are courtesy of the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians and are used with permission.

To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. Meet-native-america

From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All photos used with permission.         

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Southwestern Michigan and northern Indiana. That area is also where we are originally from.

September 22, 2014

Let’s Begin a New Chapter in NMAI History


This week marks an important milestone for the community of the National Museum of the American Indian —the 10th anniversary of the opening of the museum in Washington, D.C. I’m proud to say NMAI has helped redefine the way our visitors understand the Native American experience and Native Peoples, thanks to the generous support of numerous Native Nations, members, trustees, and staff. More than 25,000 Native Americans gathered for the museum opening in 2004—the largest gathering of indigenous people in Washington, D.C., to date—and we look forward to greeting thousands more over the next decade.

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Kevin Gover, director of the Smithsonian's National Museum of the America Indian.

This year also marks the 25th anniversary of the museum’s landmark founding legislation; the 20th anniversary of the opening of our first location, in New York City at the George Gustav Heye Center; and the 15th anniversary of the opening of our Cultural Resources Center in Suitland, Maryland. These are fine accomplishments, and we are proud and grateful for what we all have done together.

There’s still important work to be done. Most Americans have been taught a limited—and often mistaken—version of Native American history. I still remember the stereotypes that defined my childhood: Indians were figures of the past, often pictured on a rocky hillside dressed in feathers and buckskin. It was images like these that made growing up as an Indian child harder than it had to be.

The true story of our heritage is so much more nuanced, complex, and fascinating. Understanding this complexity can help us understand our present and prepare for our future as a multicultural nation. This is where NMAI can play a vital role in the coming decades, and we are committed to taking on this role with greater focus and intensity. 

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Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations, on view at the museum in Washington from September 21, 2014, through fall 2018. A more detailed caption for these photographs appears below.


Over the next quarter century, we’re committed to telling the authentic history of the Western Hemisphere and Native Peoples to citizens, policymakers, and policy influencers nationwide.  We’re embarking on this new effort in a number of ways, including through groundbreaking exhibitions such as Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations, which is now open to the public. We’re also accelerating our efforts to work with educators, providing classroom materials designed to instill a richer understanding of our history as Americans. And we’ve launched an ambitious campaign to fund more than $75 million in projects that will sustain the next generation of our work.

We understand that this kind of change cannot happen overnight. It will take time and resources. But it’s my hope that our work over the next 25 years can begin to correct the deep-rooted stereotypes, inaccuracies, and omissions that defined my childhood and continue to contribute to the challenges faced by Tribal Nations.

Please join me as we retell America’s story and build understandings upon which the Indian Nations can achieve their highest aspirations.

                                                                                                —Kevin Gover

 

For more information on ways you can support NMAI, visit http://nmai.si.edu/support or email NMAImember@si.edu

Kevin Gover is the director of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian and a citizen of the Pawnee Tribe of Oklahoma. 

 

Photo block above: Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations, on view at the museum in Washington from September 21, 2014, through fall 2018. 

Top: Examples of early diplomacy between include (left) the 1682 Lenape Treaty with colonist William Penn and (right) the 1794 Treaty of Canandiagua between the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and the United States. The Treaty of Canandiagua, one of eight original treaties that will rotate on exhibit to preserve fragile documents from light damage, can be seen now through February 2015. 

Center: A display of pipe bags, represents both the importance of ceremony to diplomacy and the northern Plains Nations that were party to the Horse Creek Treaty (1861). From left to right: Tsitsistas/Shutai (Cheyenne) pipe bag, ca. 1851 (NMAI 8/8037); Sahnish (Arikara) pipe bag, ca. 1880 (NMAI 20/1400); Yankton pipe bag, ca. 1880 (NMAI 16/7255); AssiniIoine pipe bag, ca. 1880 (NMAI 12/7393); Numakiki (Mandan) pipe bag, ca. 1851 (NMAI 8/8088); Northern Inunaina (Arapaho) pipe bag, ca. 1885 (NMAI 23/1176); Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) pipe bag, ca.1870 (NMAI 14/828); Minitari (Hidatsa) pipe bag, ca. 1880 (American Museum of Natural History 50.1/5350B); Shoshone pipe bag, ca. 1870 (NMAI 2/3294). 

Bottom: From the mid-19th century unti the present day, generations of Indian leaders have traveled to Washington, D.C., to remind successive administrations of the United States' nation-to-nation treaty obligations.

All photos are by Paul Morigi/AP Images for the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian.

 
 
 
 

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