November 11, 2014

Statement from Director Kevin Gover on Suzan Harjo and Receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom

Image

Suzan Harjo at the entrance of "Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and the American Indian Nations" at the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian on Tuesday, September 16, 2014 in Washington, D.C. (Paul Morigi/AP Images for The Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian)

I wish to congratulate my colleague and friend, Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne & Hodulgee Muscogee), on being named one of 19 recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The Presidential Medal of Freedom is the nation’s highest civilian honor, presented to individuals who have made especially meritorious contributions to the security or national interests of the United States, to world peace, or to cultural or other significant public or private endeavors. The awards will be presented by President Barack Obama at the White House on Nov. 24, 2014.

Suzan has worked tirelessly on behalf of Native peoples as an activist, journalist and leader. Her list of achievements is long and include being the founding president of the Morning Star Institute, a national Native rights organization that promotes Native Peoples' traditions, culture and arts. She is one of seven Native people who filed the 1992 landmark lawsuit, Harjo et al v. Pro Football, Inc., regarding the name of the Washington, D.C., football team. Her social and political activism dates back to the late 1960s and early 1970s when she was news director for the American Indian Press Association and producer of Seeing Red, the first Indian news show in the United States, on WBAI-FM Radio in New York. As a special assistant for Indian legislation in President Carter's administration, she was principal author of the "President's Report to Congress on American Indian Religious Freedom." She served as executive director of the National Congress of American Indians from 1984 through 1989.

Dr. Harjo’s history and relationship with the museum began over two decades ago as a founding trustee of the National Museum of the American Indian (1990–1996). She began work in 1967 that led to the NMAI, to repatriation law, and to reform of national museum policies dealing with Native Americans. She was a trustee of NMAI's predecessor museum and collection in New York City from 1980 to 1990, and was NMAI's first Program Planning Committee chair and principal author of the NMAI policies on Exhibits (1994), Indian Identity (1993), and Repatriation (1991), and as director of the 2004-2005 NMAI Native Languages Archives Repository Project. She now serves as guest curator for the recently opened exhibition, Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations, and as editor of the accompanying publication of the same name.

I could not be more proud to see Suzan join the company of such illuminaries and cultural influencers such as Ben Bradlee, Dr. Maya Angelou, and Sen. Daniel Inouye. She and Sen. Inouye were there to sign the MOU that transferred the collection from the Museum of the American Indian to the Smithsonian Institution on May 8, 1989. Her continued work as an inspiring leader and role model has made Indian Country proud and we support her as she receives this national recognition and well deserved honor!

Kevin Gover (Pawnee)
Director, National Museum of the American Indian

Comments (2)

    » Post a Comment

Really interesting post. I look forward to reading more articles on this site in the future.

Thanks

David Marks

To read this article I feel interesting. I look forward to reading more articles on this site in the future. Thanks for sharing.

October 07, 2014

“So, what’s up with all those questions about treaties on columns throughout the museum?”

Treaties interactive a1
What's the story behind the purple columns around the museum? We're glad you asked. They're interactive learning stations for the
new exhibition Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American
Indian Nations,
 and we hope they'll prompt visitors to keep asking questions.

American Indian treaties are a topic about which visitors have a lot of interest and curiosity. Engage them in a conversation about treaties, and they will often shake their heads and say, “Oh yeah, those,” and then begin to ask questions: “Are treaties still valid?” “Do treaties give American Indians special rights?” “Aren’t treaties bad for American Indians?” “Weren’t all the treaties just broken anyway?” Starting with such foundational questions, the exhibit team that produced Nation to Nation” Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations is using a well-known educational strategy to attract visitors to the major new exhibition on view in Washington through fall 2018.

On the Potomac level and on the 3rd and 4th floors of the museum, selected columns have been painted “wampum purple”—a Nation to Nation design theme—festooned with the flags of Native Nations, and fitted with wooden interactives that pose and answer important questions about treaties. The purpose of these treaties stations is to pique visitors’ interest in the Nation to Nation exhibit. But their content is not just typical Q & A. 

The treaties stations employ an educational technique known as “inquiry-based learning.” The idea behind this approach is to engage learners in a discovery of the content, instead of just telling them everything you want them to know. The “telling” approach is not the most effective educational strategy and often results in something my mother used to characterize as “going in one ear and coming out the other.” Inquiry-based learning begins with something that is compelling—for example, an image, a question, an object, or a combination thereof—then encourages people to explore it. 

Interactive 1b Interactive 1c

Interactive-1-d
Panels from a treaties interactive. (Click
each image for a larger view.)

 

 

 

 

 

 


 


At each treaties station, visitors are engaged with a question and image or images related to treaties (above, left). Visitors then rotate the panel manually, but instead of finding the answer on the next panel, they find a new image, quotation, or excerpt from a historical document—something that requires them to think again (above, right). Visitors then rotate the mechanism to a final panel, where the answer is revealed and a more detailed explanation is offered (right)

Each of the treaties station columns has the words “Find out more in the Nation to Nation exhibit,” stenciled on it. Our hope is that more visitors will be intrigued to learn what is inside the exhibit by interacting with these important treaty questions outside the exhibit. We plan to evaluate the interactives’ effectiveness in a formal way.

So, when you visit the museum, try them out. We hope that they’ll help you build your basic knowledge about treaties and that you’ll find yourself thinking about the history of treaties and their ongoing importance before you even reach the exhibit on the 4th floor. 

Then let us know what you think.

—Ed Schupman            

Ed Schupman is a citizen of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation of Oklahoma and works in the museum's education department supporting exhibit teams and developing resources for K–12 students and teachers.

Comments (0)

    » Post a Comment

September 22, 2014

Let’s Begin a New Chapter in NMAI History


This week marks an important milestone for the community of the National Museum of the American Indian —the 10th anniversary of the opening of the museum in Washington, D.C. I’m proud to say NMAI has helped redefine the way our visitors understand the Native American experience and Native Peoples, thanks to the generous support of numerous Native Nations, members, trustees, and staff. More than 25,000 Native Americans gathered for the museum opening in 2004—the largest gathering of indigenous people in Washington, D.C., to date—and we look forward to greeting thousands more over the next decade.

Director Gover NMAI-0283
Kevin Gover, director of the Smithsonian's National Museum of the America Indian.

This year also marks the 25th anniversary of the museum’s landmark founding legislation; the 20th anniversary of the opening of our first location, in New York City at the George Gustav Heye Center; and the 15th anniversary of the opening of our Cultural Resources Center in Suitland, Maryland. These are fine accomplishments, and we are proud and grateful for what we all have done together.

There’s still important work to be done. Most Americans have been taught a limited—and often mistaken—version of Native American history. I still remember the stereotypes that defined my childhood: Indians were figures of the past, often pictured on a rocky hillside dressed in feathers and buckskin. It was images like these that made growing up as an Indian child harder than it had to be.

The true story of our heritage is so much more nuanced, complex, and fascinating. Understanding this complexity can help us understand our present and prepare for our future as a multicultural nation. This is where NMAI can play a vital role in the coming decades, and we are committed to taking on this role with greater focus and intensity. 

NMAI-0080 NMAI-0067


NMAI-0225a

NMAI-0335 NMAI-0344

 

 

 

Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations, on view at the museum in Washington from September 21, 2014, through fall 2018. A more detailed caption for these photographs appears below.


Over the next quarter century, we’re committed to telling the authentic history of the Western Hemisphere and Native Peoples to citizens, policymakers, and policy influencers nationwide.  We’re embarking on this new effort in a number of ways, including through groundbreaking exhibitions such as Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations, which is now open to the public. We’re also accelerating our efforts to work with educators, providing classroom materials designed to instill a richer understanding of our history as Americans. And we’ve launched an ambitious campaign to fund more than $75 million in projects that will sustain the next generation of our work.

We understand that this kind of change cannot happen overnight. It will take time and resources. But it’s my hope that our work over the next 25 years can begin to correct the deep-rooted stereotypes, inaccuracies, and omissions that defined my childhood and continue to contribute to the challenges faced by Tribal Nations.

Please join me as we retell America’s story and build understandings upon which the Indian Nations can achieve their highest aspirations.

                                                                                                —Kevin Gover

 

For more information on ways you can support NMAI, visit http://nmai.si.edu/support or email NMAImember@si.edu

Kevin Gover is the director of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian and a citizen of the Pawnee Tribe of Oklahoma. 

 

Photo block above: Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations, on view at the museum in Washington from September 21, 2014, through fall 2018. 

Top: Examples of early diplomacy between include (left) the 1682 Lenape Treaty with colonist William Penn and (right) the 1794 Treaty of Canandiagua between the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and the United States. The Treaty of Canandiagua, one of eight original treaties that will rotate on exhibit to preserve fragile documents from light damage, can be seen now through February 2015. 

Center: A display of pipe bags, represents both the importance of ceremony to diplomacy and the northern Plains Nations that were party to the Horse Creek Treaty (1861). From left to right: Tsitsistas/Shutai (Cheyenne) pipe bag, ca. 1851 (NMAI 8/8037); Sahnish (Arikara) pipe bag, ca. 1880 (NMAI 20/1400); Yankton pipe bag, ca. 1880 (NMAI 16/7255); AssiniIoine pipe bag, ca. 1880 (NMAI 12/7393); Numakiki (Mandan) pipe bag, ca. 1851 (NMAI 8/8088); Northern Inunaina (Arapaho) pipe bag, ca. 1885 (NMAI 23/1176); Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) pipe bag, ca.1870 (NMAI 14/828); Minitari (Hidatsa) pipe bag, ca. 1880 (American Museum of Natural History 50.1/5350B); Shoshone pipe bag, ca. 1870 (NMAI 2/3294). 

Bottom: From the mid-19th century unti the present day, generations of Indian leaders have traveled to Washington, D.C., to remind successive administrations of the United States' nation-to-nation treaty obligations.

All photos are by Paul Morigi/AP Images for the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian.

September 11, 2014

Haudenosaunee–U.S. Treaty of 1794 Comes to the Museum


Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations
, opening September 21, offers people a rare opportunity to see documents that have shaped our history and still define our mutual obligations. The treaty between the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and the United States is one of the earliest negotiated between Native Americans and the U.S. government under the Constitution. 

AP241501892133_3
From left:
Faithkeeper of the Turtle Clan of the Onondaga Nation of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy Oren Lyons, PhD; Tadodaho of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy Chief Sidney Hill; Suzan Harjo (Cheyenne and Hodulgee Muscogee), guest curator of Nation to NationKevin Gover (Pawnee), director of the National Museum of the American Indian; and Jim Gardner, executive for Legislative Archives, Presidential Programs, and Museum Programs at the National Archives, unveil the Treaty of Canandaigua of 1794, on loan to the museum.


In 1794 representatives of the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and an American delegation led by President Washington's ambassador, Timothy Pickering, met on treaty grounds near Canandaigua, New York, to negotiate an accord. The two parties wished to confirm the peace between them and to secure their respective interests. Working together, the Six Nations—Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and Tuscarora—sought to recover lands in New York State they had lost to the United States following the Revolutionary War. The United States wanted Native lands in Ohio and assurances that the Haudenosaunee would not ally themselves with the Ohio tribes against the U.S. Army. 

More than 1,600 Haudenosaunee people gathered for the treaty council. Cornplanter (Ki-On-Twog-Ki), a Seneca war chief, and Red Jacket (Sagoyewatha), a distinguished Seneca and speaker for his fellow chiefs, took the lead, although others joined the talks as well. In the end, after 23 days of negotiations, the United States ceded back more than a million acres of Haudenosaunee lands and agreed to an annual payment of goods. The Haudenosaunee ceded all claims to Pennsylvania and the Ohio Valley. 

This week, the National Archives lent the Treaty with the Six Nations to the National Museum of the American Indian for the opening of the exhibition Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations. Haudenosaunee Faithkeeper Chief Oren Lyons and the Tadodaho of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, Chief Sidney Hill, came to Washington to welcome the treaty to the museum. 

AP197318373505_9 AP558565009627_0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 AP254416354119_2

AP953247871443_7 AP364887375351_6Top left: Gail Joice, collections manager at the museum, and Terry Boone, exhibits conservator for the National Archives, prepare to move the treaty to the exhibition gallery. Top right: Chief Lyons and Director Gover study the treaty after installation. Center: Chief Hill and Chief Lyons scan the names of the leaders who signed the treaty for the Six Nations. Bottom: The signature and seal of Ki-On-Twog-Ky, also known as Cornplanter, and the signatures of President George Washington and Secretary of State Edmund Randolph; Washington often had a secretary add his signature to documents, but the president signed this treaty in his own hand.

Nation to Nation represents one of the rare times the treaty has been exhibited. James Zeender, senior registrar in the Exhibits Division of the National Archives, describes the document's journey to this point:

After its signing on November 11, 1794, the treaty was brought back to the seat of government in New York City. President Washington obtained the Senate's advice and consent and ratified the treaty on behalf of the United States Government.  Washington's ratification is visible as two smaller pieces of parchment attached to the treaty at the top and bottom of the original, signed on lower piece by Washington and Secretary of State Edmund Randolph. In the years to come, the treaty was kept with other treaties at the State Department until they were moved to the new National Archives Building on the Mall in the mid-1930s. At the beginning of this century, the treaty and other highly valuable records were relocated temporarily during a major renovation of the building downtown and returned a few years later.

Historic documents are fragile and sensitive to light, so original treaties can be displayed for only a short time. The treaty kept by the Haudenosaunee is held in the collection of the Ontario County Historical Society in Canadaigua, where it is shown once a year on Treaty Day, November 11. The treaty on loan from the National Archives will be on view at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C., from September 21, 2014—the opening of Nation to Nation and the tenth anniversary of the museum on the National Mall—through February 2015. 


The transcript of the Treaty with the Six Nations originally appears in Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler, 1904. 
Digitized transcript made available by the Oklahoma State University. 

The photos above were taken September 8, 2014, at the National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, D.C., by Kevin Wolf/AP Images for the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian. 

 

Comments (1)

    » Post a Comment

Thank you for reporting these issues, I was looking for some time what they were going to do with this museum.