October 10, 2014

Meet Native America: James Roger Madalena (Jemez Pueblo), New Mexico State Representative

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh 

James Roger Madalena 1
New Mexico State Representative James Roger Madalena, New Mexico Legislature. Photo courtesy of the New Mexico Legislature.

Please introduce yourself with your name and title. 

James Roger Madalena, State Representative, New Mexico Legislature.

What is your Native community?

I'm from Jemez Pueblo. It's tribal name is Walatowa, which means Place of Peace.

Where is your community located? 

In central New Mexico, 50 miles northwest of Albuquerque.

Where was your community originally from? 

We were from northwest New Mexico, in the Mesa Verde Area and Chaco Canyon Area.

What is a significant point in history from your people that you would like to share? 

It's the loss of our aboriginal acreage. Under both the Spanish and American governments, our lands of more than 200,000 acres of mountains, meadows, streams were reduced to a mere 98,000 acres of dry, rolling hills of sand, sagebrush, and cedar.

How is your Native community government set up? Is there a functional, traditional entity of leadership in addition to your modern government system?

We have two branches: One is the Secular Branch, where the governor, lieutenant governor(s), tribal sheriff, and their five aides deal with day-to-day outside issues. We also have the Traditional Branch, where our war captain, lieutenant war captain, and their five aides deal with traditional activities and functions. Our fiscale, lieutenant fiscale, and their five aides deal with Christian church issues, deaths and burials, and some other traditional issues.

How are leaders chosen? 

We are a non-constitutional tribe—our leaders are appointed annually by our highest traditional leaders. All the positions mentioned above are appointed.

How often does your Tribal Council meet? 

Our Tribal Council meets at least once a month; our Traditional Branch Council meets once a year at year-end to make appointments for leadership. 

What responsibilities do you have as a state representative? 

I represent the interest of seven pueblos in Sandoval County; two Navajo Nation chapters in Sandoval County as well; the Jicarilla Nation in Rio Arriba County; and two Navajo chapters in San Juan County. Sixty-eight to 70 percent of my constituents are Native; the remaining 30 percent are a mixture of Anglo, Hispanic, and other.

How did your life experience prepare you to lead your community? 

Having good, responsible parents is first. I had a personal interest in education and opted out of trade school to get a college degree in sociology and political Science.

Who inspired you as a mentor? 

My only mentors were my grandpa Joe Madalena and my dad, Frank Madalena. The rest of my motivation was my interest in the fields of politics and sociology.

Are you a descendant of a historical leader? 

No, I am not.

Approximately how many members are in the Pueblo of Jemez? 

Enrolled membership is over 3,000 people. Half of those citizens reside within the pueblo; the other half are scattered. 

What are the criteria to become a member of your Native community? 

A person must have one-quarter Towa Indian blood.

Is your language still spoken on your homelands? If so, what percentage of your people would you estimate are fluent speakers? 

I'm proud to say that the Towa language is strong, and our youth are being taught the language at an early age within their homes as well as in Head Start

Walatowa Visitor Center
The Walatowa Visitor Center and Museum of History and Culture offers information on Towa life and traditions, tours of the Jemez Red Rocks, and works by contemporary Jemez artists. Photo courtesy of the Walatowa Visitor Center.

What economic enterprises does your Native community own? 

Location being location, Jemez Pueblo only has a small convenience store and gas station. There is also the Walatowa Visitors Center, and tourists do stop by to see our small museum and handicrafts.

What annual events does your Native community sponsor? 

During warm months, the pueblo will sponsor the Jemez Red Rocks Arts and Crafts Fair; and there is a Veterans Social on Veterans Day.

What attractions are available for visitors on your land? 

New Mexico State Road 4, which passes through the pueblo, is a recognized National Scenic Byway heading north to our traditional mountains where there is fishing, camping, hiking, hunting, and picnicking in campgrounds. Our most traditional site is Redondo Peak and the Valles Caldera, and visitors can enjoy seeing hundreds and thousands of elk and deer as they come down from higher elevations to feed by the stream in the evenings.

Along NM Rt 4
Cottonwoods turn yellow in October along New Mexico State Road 4, a National Scenic Byway that leads to the mountains north of Jemez Pueblo. Photo courtesy of the Walatowa Visitor Center.


How does your Native community deal with the U.S. as a sovereign nation? 

Jemez Pueblo has a government-to-government relationship contracting most programs under PL 93-638. The Pueblo knows its needs better than someone up the bureaucratic level.

What message would you like to share with the youth of your Native community? 

As Natives, partake of community dances and ceremonials. Practice and strengthen your minds and bodies from your surroundings. 

As Native youth, you also need to involve yourselves in civic and political functions. Once you are in the process, study and learn your colleagues' behaviors on issues, how people react and how they handle themselves through trial and stress. Learn how people handle themselves in forums, gatherings, and formal settings. Learn from them by being calm and collected and patient. Such is growth and success in the long run.

Is there anything else you would like to add? 

Just a few words of thanks and appreciation for an opportunity convey my 40 years in the field of politics. New Mexico is one of only two or three states governed by a citizens’ legislature. We are not salaried, and my whole life has been dedicated to public service. Seeing the light at the end of the tunnel, I am proud to have been of service to the most neglected and needy—our Native American population—and to have done so without being an insurgent and or radical. 

Thank you. 

To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. Meet-native-america
From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All photos used with permission. 

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As Natives, partake of community dances and ceremonials. Practice and strengthen your minds and bodies from your surroundings.

nice post

September 25, 2014

Meet Native America: Robert J. Moody Jr., Vice Chairman of the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh 
 

Please introduce yourself with your name and title. 

Robert J. Moody Jr., vice chairman of the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians

Robert J. Moody Jr.
Robert J. Moody Jr., vice chairman of the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians.

What is your name in your language, and what does it mean? 

It's Migisi Nag Wiid Disowen, which means My Eyes Are the Eyes of the Eagle, or Eagle Vision. 

Where is your tribe located? 

Southwestern Michigan and northern Indiana. That area is also where we are originally from. 

What is a significant point in history from your people that you would like to share? 

Leopold Pokagon negotiated the 1833 Treaty of Chicago, which secured the right of the tribe to remain in Michigan and not be removed to the west. In 1994 the federal government, through congressional legislation, restored all rights to the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi as a federally recognized tribe. 

How is the Pokagon Band government set up? 

The Pokagon government consists of a legislative branch—the Tribal Council—and a judicial branch—the Tribal Court. Our Tribal Council consists of a chairman, vice chairman, treasurer, secretary, six members at large, and an elders’ representative. We have a total of eleven seats on our Tribal Council. 

Is there a functional, traditional entity of leadership in addition to your modern government system? 

We have an Elders Council. We also have many pipecarriers and a very active veterans group

How often are elected leaders chosen? 

As provided by our Tribal Constitution, we have staggered, three-year terms of office. Tribal elections are held every July. 

How often does your Tribal Council meet? 

Tribal Council meets once a week, generally on a Monday, with an additional meeting on the second Saturday of each month. All meetings are open to tribal citizens. Meetings are also webcast for those who may not have the opportunity to attend. 

How did your life experience prepare you to lead your band? 

In the early 1980s, I began to be involved with tribal politics along with my grandmother. I served as a Tribal Council member at large until the 1990s. Late in the 1990s I was honored to serve as the tribal chairman. My service was shared with responsibilities and activities on many boards and committees of the tribe. Restoration of our sovereignty provided many challenges as to the proper structuring and implementation of government and government services for our citizens. 

Vice Chairman Moody at Pokegnet Edawat
Vice Chairman Moody at the opening celebration for 32 new homes built for Pokagon citizens at the tribal village Pokégnet Édawat. October 30, 2013; Pokagon Band Community Center, Dowagiac, Michigan. 

 

What responsibilities do you have as a tribal leader? 

As vice chairman, I have the duty, first and foremost, to work for the people, tribal citizens, and for many generations to come. The day-to-day activities consist of meetings, correspondence, giving direction, consideration and development of new legislation, representing the tribe, and fulfilling all duties of the office in the absence of the chairman. 

Who inspired you? 

My mother and my father, along with my grandmother and my uncle, were all my mentors. Leopold Pokagon and his vision have always been a deep inspiration and guide in my life. 

Are you a descendant of a historical leader? If so, who? 

My great-grandfather, R. C. Mix, was instrumental in working with the federal government to reinstate our rights. He served on Tribal Council in the 1950s and was an inspiration to me. One of the foremost reasons I got into tribal leadership was to pick up his crusade and continue it. 

Approximately how many members are in the Pokagon Band? 

As of August of this year, the citizen or membership count is 4,936. 

What are the criteria to become a member of your band? 

Although tribal rolls are now closed, the criterion for membership is that one must provide documentation of relationship to any of the names appearing on the Cadmun Roll of 1895 or the Shelby Roll of 1896. 

Is your language still spoken on your homelands? If so, what percentage of your people would you estimate are fluent speakers?

Our language is still spoken on our homelands. There are a few fluent elder speakers, and although the tribe has many other speakers, we continue working towards making Potawatomi the first language and English the second. Not only do we offer weekly Potawatomi classes in several locations to many age groups—including our Head Start students—we have two language apprentices who live and study with native speakers. Once they are finished with their apprenticeship, the two will be fluent speakers and will teach other Pokagons the language.  

What economic enterprises does the Pokagon Band own? 

Four Winds Casino, with locations in New Buffalo, Hartford, and Dowagiac, Michigan, provides economic sustainability and fuels the needs of our current citizenship, with the commitment to provide for several generations to come. The tribe's economic development authority, Mno Bamadsen, was chartered in 2007 to diversify economic development opportunities; it is the non-gaming economic arm of our tribe. Currently Mno Bamadsen owns and operates Seven Generations Architecture & Engineering, Bent Tree convenience store and gas station, and Accu Mold LLC plastic engineering. Mno Bamadsen is certified under the Small Business Association 8(a) program and is qualified for other contracting incentives under the U. S. Code. 

Robert Moody Jr. at Kee-Boon-Mein-Kaa Pow Wow
Bob Moody dancing in the competition at the Kee-Boon-Mein-Kaa Pow Wow. August 2014; Rodgers Lake campus, Dowagiac, Michigan.

What annual events does the Pokagon Band sponsor? 

Oshke-Kno-Kewewen, our traditional powwow, is held every Memorial Day weekend at our powwow grounds. We host a contest powwow, Kee-Boon-Mein-Kaa, every Labor Day weekend. We also reach out to many surrounding communities and sponsor various charities, events, and causes, like the Four Winds Invitational Ladies PGA golf tournament, which helps support Memorial Children's Hospital in South Bend, Indiana. 

What attractions are available for visitors on your land? 

Our tribal campuses include a campground, lakes, administration offices, 64 homes, a community center, Head Start facilities, Tribal Court, sports fields, and playgrounds. In November we’ll open a 36,000-square-foot health center featuring a clinic, a pharmacy, behavioral health, dental services, optical services, and a fitness and therapy center. In addition we have the casinos mentioned earlier in New Buffalo, Hartford, and Dowagiac. 

How does the Pokagon Band deal with the United States as a sovereign nation? 

We utilize and exercise our sovereign in every capacity. 

What message would you like to share with the youth of your band? 

Be aware and understand tribal issues and the importance of these issues as they relate to your family, your clan, and your nation. You are the leaders of tomorrow. 

Is there anything else you would like to add? 

Igwein—thank you—for this opportunity to share in a humble manner. 

Thank you. 


All photographs are courtesy of the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians and are used with permission.

To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. Meet-native-america

From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All photos used with permission.         

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Southwestern Michigan and northern Indiana. That area is also where we are originally from.

September 12, 2014

Meet Native America: Gari Pikyavit Lafferty, Chairwoman of the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh 

Please introduce yourself with your name and title. 

MNA Gari 1a
Paiute Tribal Chairwoman Gari Pikyavit Lafferty.

Gari Pikyavit Lafferty, chairwoman of the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah

Where is your tribe located? 

Our tribe is made up of five bands of Paiutes. From the north to south in Utah, we are the Koosharem Band, in Richfield, Utah; Kanosh Band, in Kanosh; Cedar Band and Indian Peaks Band, in the Cedar City area; and Shivwits Band, in St. George. 

Where were the five bands originally from? 

We have always been in central and southern Utah area. 

What is a significant point in history from your people that you would like to share? 

On Febuary 27, 1953, the federal government outlined a strategy for termination. Our tribe was terminated in 1954. Federal assistance ended for our people. It's written that almost immediately after termination began, it became clear it was a mistake. Struggling for survival, the Southern Paiutes in Utah worked their way through an alien legal and bureaucratic maze to finally win restoration on April 3, 1980. During termination the Paiutes lost well over 15,000 acres of land. 

What responsibilities do you have as a tribal leader? 

Responsibilities comes in all forms, from attending monthly meetings, attending state affairs, federal issues that may have some kind of effect on your tribe. It's vital as well that your Native community see you as often as possible. 

I am on the road a lot, out and about for our tribe. It's very critical for me to be active in my Native community. I like being with the people, and I never forget they are the ones who put me here as chairwoman. I should add, though, that my family time is important to me more then ever. 

How did your life experience prepare you to lead your tribe?

It's interesting how someone comes to tribal leadership or tribal politics. As for myself, it's something that was instilled in me at a young age. I am proud to say that with my dad and grandfathers and many family members, leadership runs deep in my family. My sister Marguerite Pikyavit Teller was the first woman elected chair of the Paiute Tribe. It was only a matter of time for me.

I am a mother of five amazing children—Heston Smith, Mckinley Smith, Sable Lafferty, Charles M. P. Lafferty, and Aries Jackson. I'm married to one great man, Charles Lafferty, who supports me. At times he doesn't understand why I have chosen to put myself in this position. It's not for everyone. You have to be cut from a different kind of cloth. If you're a weeping willow, it's not for you. But if you can withstand the storm that comes with politics, then this is the job for you.

My dad told me at a very young age, "Gari, you will be sitting at the head of the tribe one day." I have always been active in community affairs as well—school, church, band, tribal. 

Who inspired you as a mentor? 

MNA Gari 3a
Chief Mckay Pikyavit.

My father is my greatest mentor of all. I am very proud to say that my father was the last chief of our people—Chief Mckay Richard Pikyavit. My dad was so amazing there just isn't enough paper or time to say all I would like to say about him. My father was very much a family man, he took his responsibilities as a father very seriously. My father was a farmhand at a young age, then worked for our county road department. We had a large family, so when my brothers and sisters got older my mother worked as well.

My father was very active in tribal affairs. Community, church, school—my dad said you have to be out doing all you can in your community to make a difference. My father was one that spearheaded the work for our tribal restatement under the federal government. I remember being a young child and seeing my dad traveling the state of Utah to meet with others working towards the goal of our restoration as a federally recognized tribe. After long years of hard work, it came to pass on April 3, 1980, signed into law by President Carter. The dream of action came to pass.

I saw the long hours, days, months, years it took for this to happen. So I think that if I can do a fourth of what my dad achieved for the Paiute people, I will leave feeling I was a very accomplished leader for our people. Well, I have to say that I am very proud I am the daughter of Mckay Richard Pikyavit, the last chief of the Paiute people.

How is your tribal government set up?

Our government is set up with a tribal chairman and five council members representing the five bands. Six elected office-holders in all sit on our Tribal Council.

Is there a functional, traditional entity of leadership in addition to your modern government system? 

No, there is no traditional entity of leadership.

How often are elected leaders chosen? 

Elections are held every four years for a term of four years. First, each band area elects its band chairman or chairwoman. Members of the band eighteen years and older are eligible to vote. Once that is done, then all five newly elected band chairs' names go into the election for tribal chair. This election is open to all tribal members living anywhere in the United States.

Each band chair reports monthly to the Tribal Council on that band's affairs. One interesting note: This is the first time our Tribal Council members are all women. 

MNA Gari 2a
Tribal Council of the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah, 2014. From left to right: Toni Pikyavit, chairwoman of the Koosharem Band; Lara Tom, chairwoman of the Cedar Band; Jeanine Borchardt, chairwoman of the Indian Peaks Band; Gari Pikyavit Lafferty, tribal chairwoman; Hope Silvas, vice-chairwoman of the Shivwits Band; Corrina Bow, chairwoman of the Kanosh Band. 

How often does the Tribal Council meet? 

Tribal Council meets twice a month, more often if necessary. Each band has a representative for health, education, and housing. Together they make up all boards for the tribe. Each band regularly holds a meeting as well, monthly or more often. Some bands have more going on than others in their areas.

Additionally, a General Council Meeting consisting of all enrolled tribal members over the age of 18 is held each year on the first Saturday in November. 

Approximately how many members are in the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah? 

We have around 900-plus members. 

What are the criteria to become a member?

For enrollment in our tribe is you have to have at least one fourth Paiute blood from your mother or father. 

Is your language still spoken on your homelands? If so, what percentage of your people would you estimate are fluent speakers?

Sadly, like for many other tribes, our language is spoken by our elders. And not too many of them have many othes to talk to. 

What economic enterprises does your tribe own?

All of our bands have their own economic enterprises. There are lots of tribal members who have their own enterprise for making money from sewing, bead work, painting.

What annual events does your tribe sponsor? 

Annual events vary from each band area. But as far as the tribe, we have our Restoration Gathering, an annual meeting where we hold our powwow, pageant, softball tournament, hand games, feast, parade. This all takes place the second weekend of June. This is celebration of our restoration as a federally recognized tribe, along with the annual meeting that's held in April. 

What attractions are available for visitors on your land? 

A great attraction would be to come and visit us during our Restoration Gathering. Also, we live in the most beautiful place in the world, with many national and state parks around us. 

How does your tribe deal with the United States as a sovereign nation? 

Our concern as a soveriegn nation is just to be a good neighbor and offer support if and where it's needed. 

What message would you like to share with the youth of your tribe?

To our youth, I'd like to say that life is short. Enjoy it. Take every opportunity you can to make the very best of it for you and your families. We all make mistakes, but don't let them define who you are, or who you want to become. Use your mistakes as building blocks to your future. Listen to your elders. They may not all have a high school or college diploma, but what they do have is life experiences. And you need both to have success in your life.

You see only one person in me, but I stand on many shoulders of family members, as well as tribal people who have come before me. I will always be grateful for those who have worked very hard to get our tribe to where it is today. We are small compared to other tribes, but we have many great people who are thriving and working very hard for our people today and for those to come.

Is there anything else you would like to add? 

I would like to end with saying, we are living our grandparents' dreams, what they hoped would come to pass for our Paiute people. Let's not disappoint them. Just as they were to us, we are to our grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Let's make sure we are writing their history well. 

Thank you.


All photos are courtesy of the Paiute Tribe of Utah and are used with permission.

To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. Meet-native-america
From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All photos used with permission.         

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Great wonderful points.
Each and every single point mentioned above has its own importance.

Thanks and Regards,

A very inspiring story of this woman leader. I hope that sometime in my country we can see something like this with the Berbers of North Africa (Morocco, Argelia, Tunez, etc).

Thank you for this great article.

Really very beautiful and very descriptive information. Thank you very much.

September 11, 2014

Haudenosaunee–U.S. Treaty of 1794 Comes to the Museum


Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations
, opening September 21, offers people a rare opportunity to see documents that have shaped our history and still define our mutual obligations. The treaty between the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and the United States is one of the earliest negotiated between Native Americans and the U.S. government under the Constitution. 

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From left:
Faithkeeper of the Turtle Clan of the Onondaga Nation of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy Oren Lyons, PhD; Tadodaho of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy Chief Sidney Hill; Suzan Harjo (Cheyenne and Hodulgee Muscogee), guest curator of Nation to NationKevin Gover (Pawnee), director of the National Museum of the American Indian; and Jim Gardner, executive for Legislative Archives, Presidential Programs, and Museum Programs at the National Archives, unveil the Treaty of Canandaigua of 1794, on loan to the museum.


In 1794 representatives of the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and an American delegation led by President Washington's ambassador, Timothy Pickering, met on treaty grounds near Canandaigua, New York, to negotiate an accord. The two parties wished to confirm the peace between them and to secure their respective interests. Working together, the Six Nations—Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and Tuscarora—sought to recover lands in New York State they had lost to the United States following the Revolutionary War. The United States wanted Native lands in Ohio and assurances that the Haudenosaunee would not ally themselves with the Ohio tribes against the U.S. Army. 

More than 1,600 Haudenosaunee people gathered for the treaty council. Cornplanter (Ki-On-Twog-Ki), a Seneca war chief, and Red Jacket (Sagoyewatha), a distinguished Seneca and speaker for his fellow chiefs, took the lead, although others joined the talks as well. In the end, after 23 days of negotiations, the United States ceded back more than a million acres of Haudenosaunee lands and agreed to an annual payment of goods. The Haudenosaunee ceded all claims to Pennsylvania and the Ohio Valley. 

This week, the National Archives lent the Treaty with the Six Nations to the National Museum of the American Indian for the opening of the exhibition Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations. Haudenosaunee Faithkeeper Chief Oren Lyons and the Tadodaho of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, Chief Sidney Hill, came to Washington to welcome the treaty to the museum. 

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AP953247871443_7 AP364887375351_6Top left: Gail Joice, collections manager at the museum, and Terry Boone, exhibits conservator for the National Archives, prepare to move the treaty to the exhibition gallery. Top right: Chief Lyons and Director Gover study the treaty after installation. Center: Chief Hill and Chief Lyons scan the names of the leaders who signed the treaty for the Six Nations. Bottom: The signature and seal of Ki-On-Twog-Ky, also known as Cornplanter, and the signatures of President George Washington and Secretary of State Edmund Randolph; Washington often had a secretary add his signature to documents, but the president signed this treaty in his own hand.

Nation to Nation represents one of the rare times the treaty has been exhibited. James Zeender, senior registrar in the Exhibits Division of the National Archives, describes the document's journey to this point:

After its signing on November 11, 1794, the treaty was brought back to the seat of government in New York City. President Washington obtained the Senate's advice and consent and ratified the treaty on behalf of the United States Government.  Washington's ratification is visible as two smaller pieces of parchment attached to the treaty at the top and bottom of the original, signed on lower piece by Washington and Secretary of State Edmund Randolph. In the years to come, the treaty was kept with other treaties at the State Department until they were moved to the new National Archives Building on the Mall in the mid-1930s. At the beginning of this century, the treaty and other highly valuable records were relocated temporarily during a major renovation of the building downtown and returned a few years later.

Historic documents are fragile and sensitive to light, so original treaties can be displayed for only a short time. The treaty kept by the Haudenosaunee is held in the collection of the Ontario County Historical Society in Canadaigua, where it is shown once a year on Treaty Day, November 11. The treaty on loan from the National Archives will be on view at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C., from September 21, 2014—the opening of Nation to Nation and the tenth anniversary of the museum on the National Mall—through February 2015. 


The transcript of the Treaty with the Six Nations originally appears in Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler, 1904. 
Digitized transcript made available by the Oklahoma State University. 

The photos above were taken September 8, 2014, at the National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, D.C., by Kevin Wolf/AP Images for the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian. 

 

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Thank you for reporting these issues, I was looking for some time what they were going to do with this museum.

August 29, 2014

Meet Native America: Jonathan Poahway, Comanche Business Committeeman #1

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh 


Jonathan Poahway e
Comanche Business Committeeman Jonathan Poahway speaking at the 2014 Johnson–O'Malley Senior Banquet.  Cache High School, Cache, Oklahoma.

Please introduce yourself with your name and title.

Jonathan Poahway, Comanche Business Committeeman #1.

What is your name in your language, and what does it mean?

Tsaa tuhoi—it means Good Hunter.

Where is your tribe located?

The Comanche Nation Complex is in Lawton, in southwest Oklahoma.

Where were the Comanche originally from?

Wyoming—we were originally a band of the Shoshone, or they were a band of us, perhaps. 

What is a significant point in history from your people that you would like to share?

No United States war with any tribal nation lasted more than ten years, except the war against the Comanche. That lasted for forty years. Also the Comanche were the “roadblock” against Spanish expansion and conquest on this continent! 

What responsibilities do you have as a member of the Business Committee?

To secure a financially stable future for all tribal members, as well as for future generations. 

How did your life experience prepare you to lead?

I was raised as the youngest child of 15. The majority of us were raised by a single parent after our father died. Our mother was a fluent speaker of Comanche, with English as her second language, and she worked very hard to provide for us all. She worked two and sometimes three jobs. It instilled in us children a fine work ethic. Her parents spoke only Comanche and taught her to take care of others before yourself, and that is also ingrained in us. So it is in my heart to take care of all our nation, especially the children and our children's grandchildren.

Who inspired you as a mentor?

I would have to say one of my older brothers, who was on the council once as well. He taught me that honesty is the best policy, also that doing right will positively affect more people than doing wrong would.

Are you a descendant of a historical leader?

No.

Approximately how many members are in your nation?

Approximately 16,000. 

What are the criteria to become a member of the Comanche Nation?

To be enrolled, you must be one-eighth Comanche Indian blood quantum and a descendant of an original Comanche Nation land allottee. 

Is your language still spoken on your homelands? If so, what percentage of your people would you estimate are fluent speakers? 

Only by the elderly. Fluency is probably as low as 3 percent. There is a language committee working to change that.

How is your tribal government set up?

We have a chairman who is in charge of day-to day-operations, a Business Committee whose members are policymakers and decide on investments under a certain amount, and the General Council—the people,  all members of the Comanche Nation who are eighteen years old or older—who vote on investments over the amount.

How often are leaders chosen?

The chairman has a two-year term, and seats on the Business Committee are for a three-year term.

How often does the government meet?

The Business Committee meets once a month, and the General Council meets once a year.

Johnny and niece
Jonathan Poahway and his daughter, Melissa Marie Koehler, Miss Comanche Nation College, at the Comanche Nation College Pow Wow. Lawton, Oklahoma; May, 2014.

How does your nation deal with the United States as a sovereign nation?

We are supposed to be treated with the respect given to foreign nations. Sometimes we are not, and have to fight for and remind the United States government of our sovereignty. 

What attractions are available for visitors on your tribal lands?

We have casinos, the Comanche Nation Tourism Center, a water park, and the Comanche National Museum and Cultural Center.

What annual events does your nation sponsor?

We have the Comanche Nation Fair, which is coming up September 26 through 28, and a Comanche Nation Homecoming Pow Wow to honor our veterans.

What message would you like to share with Native youth?  

Education will take you a long ways and open many doors. Respect—for others—will keep those doors open!

Is there anything else you would like to add?

It is our responsibility as stewards of the land to pass down to many generations the knowledge and ability to take care of our mother, Earth!

Thank you. 


All photographs courtesy of Committeeman Poahway, used with permission.

To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. Meet-native-america
From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All photos used with permission.         

Comments (5)

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that's nice

This is so nice to read! Native americans are our history!

Great interview with Gari Pikyavit Lafferty, Chairwoman of the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah

Learning about our American history and culture is great. History was always my favorite study in school.

Johnny Poahway represents a change in tribal governmental politics, he is a young and educated and a Comanche leader who advocates for language preservation, leadership, and fiscal responsibility for the Comanche people.

culture is the wealth of a nation. I appreciate your cultural diversity and how that culture was still maintained. Pictures photos in this article show a truly unique high culture. This is my hometown in Indonesia—Trawas.