March 02, 2016

The voyage of building an outrigger canoe: Lashing the booms to the hull

Part 1: Introduction and author bio
Part 2: Harvesting a canoe log . . . or plywood
Part 3: Roughing out the hull
Part 4: Making tools without metal, and, on some islands, without rock
Part 5: Stitch and glue
Part 6: Sanding and gluing
Part 7: Outrigger and booms
Part 8: Cordage

 

Lashing1
The iako, or booms, lashed to the hull of my canoe. Where my hull has reinforcements around the holes that the ropes pass through, an old Hawaiian canoe would have pepeiao—ears—carved into the hull, to hold a cross brace called a wae.

 

Lashing this canoe together needs to be quick and efficient. I say this because I drive a VW golf. With my roof racks, I can strap all the canoe parts on the car and drive to the Chesapeake Bay in half an hour. It takes maybe another 30 to 45 minutes to unload it, lash the whole thing together, and rig it. I can sail for a few hours, come back, take it all apart, put it back on top of the car, and drive home. For two to three hours' sail, it's worth it. Ahhhhh. But it means that I'm always putting the canoe together and taking it apart.

The lashing of a canoe is both an art and a science. The lashing needs to be strong enough to hold the craft together in rough seas, it must be tight so the pieces can flex but don’t wobble, and it can be beautiful as well.

There are two sets of lashing required for a small canoe like this. The first is connecting the booms (‘iako) to the hull, and the second connects the other ends of the ‘iako to the ama, the outrigger float. How these connections are done depends on the configuration of the canoe. On the Hawaiian-style canoe, the ‘iako are lashed to the hull using two projections called pepeiao—ears—carved on the inside of the hull. These projections have holes through which the rope can pass and are used for anchoring U-shaped braces called wae that span the hull. By projecting, the pepeiao provide much more room to lash the ‘iako and give greater stability.

Lashing-earsLashing-brace

Left: Pepeiao on the Kapi‘olanio canoe, carved out of the hull itself. Right: The brace and lashing of the ‘iako on the museum's much more modern ‘Auhou canoe. Note how the U-shaped wae is lashed to the pepeiao.


Lashing my canoe did not involve these wae braces, so to better understand Hawaiian canoes, I went to my canoe-building friend Jay Dowsett of the Friends of Hōkūleʻa for a lesson.

Lashing4-JayDowsett
Jay Dowsett, a canoe-builder and member of Friends of Hōkūleʻa.

Jay demonstrated on a modern fiberglass canoe, using a block of wood in place of the ‘iako. This is based on examples of old canoes. It seems a little tricky, but Jay assures me that doing this repeatedly is what’s going to teach you. First time is a learning curve, second time you’re pretty much getting it down, and by the third time you’ll be teaching it. He explains while I assist him:

This length of line is a total of 12 fathoms, and we then split the difference, put a loop in the center, and then we feed the loop around the wae, and then the two ends that you actually use for lashing through this loop. Then you try to tighten it up so that the ropes are coming off the bottom of the wae.

Now most people are under the impression that you’re using cotton cord because cotton shrinks when you wash it, but it’s actually the opposite: Cotton swells and gets thicker. It’s the swelling action that makes this tighter and tighter. Yes, when we do the lashing, the lashing is going to be very tight, but once it gets wet and starts to swell, that’s what really makes it bulletproof.

Making the loop

To begin lashing an ‘iako (boom) to his modern canoe, Jay folds 12 fathoms (72 feet) of cotton rope in the middle, then pulls the two ends of the rope through the loop in its center. In this fiberglass canoe, the wae (cross brace) is built right into the hull, but the method and principle are the same.


Jay and I stood on opposite sides of the canoe worked one of the two ends of the rope. I followed what he was doing as he talked me through the steps:

We’re going to do a series of cross-overs to hold it down. The rope comes over the back and goes forward, then through that hole. I’ll do the same.

A lot of people, when they first start rigging, they want to pull as tight as they can on the very first time. You can’t. What’s going to happen is, when you pull, the whole ‘iako is going to get shoved backwards. So doing the first one is a little tough as far as getting it really tight.

Then you go underneath the ‘iako, over the top, and through the back hole.

Lashing

Still lashing Still more lashing
More lashing

 

 

 

 

Clockwise from upper left: Jay seats the knot of the loop at the bottom of the wae. We each bring an end of the rope over the ‘iako and thread it through a hole on our side of hull. Once outside the hole, we loop the rope around the ‘iako, then thread it through the other hole on our side of the hull. Then the rope loops back over the center of the wae and goes to the opposite side, and we follow the same steps again.


We’re going to repeat this whole process over and over again until we run out of line. Now the key here is that someone is going to be considered first, and someone is going to be considered second. That means someone has to start the lashing, and someone has to follow.

Every time I go, I’m going to go behind this loop that you first put in, and then you’re going to go behind the loop after me. Then you’re going to come across and you’re going to lock me in. Bang, bang, bang, bang—these keep locking each other in. This loop is going to keep the rope from getting pulled over to my side. Now, you’re going to do the same thing. Now you can pull it as tight as you can manage.

Now to make it look pretty, you see where it crosses over, you don’t want to do that haphazardly anywhere. You want to try to keep it looking good, and keep it in the center. So as you cross over, all of the cross bars will be in the center. And then there’s always the question of, are we lashing to the inside or to the outside? That is, every time we cross over, are we going to be on the inside of the rope or the outside of the rope? In this particular case, we’re going to the inside, so each time we do it, we’re going to be moving closer and closer to the center. And there is method to this madness—you’ll see why.”

We continue following the same pattern. For the sake of this example, we will go around four times, but seven or eight is normal. It’s all repetition up to this point, following the same pattern and keeping it neat. Then we switch to just wrapping it four times with each end of the rope.

Then we switch ropes and take them straight over the top, again wrapping it four times with each end of the rope. Normally we would be pulling it very tight each time. After the fourth cross-over, we switch ropes.

Lashing x 4

For this demonstration, Jay and I did four rounds of lashing, as opposed to the more typical seven or eight, then wrapped each end of the rope over the center of the wae and ‘iako four times.

Now we go through and around those vertical loops we just made. Each time, we switch and take each other’s rope, then do it again. We are just wrapping—frapping, it’s called—the binds to pull them tight together. That tightens it all up and draws the 'iako down tight.

At the end we pull against each other, and that tightens it all up and pulls it down. Now we tie it off with a regular square knot. Normally I would tie the square knot on the other side. We shove the ends through and tie the knot on the other side.

Frapping More frapping Square knot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clockwise from upper left: To “frap” means to “tighten the slack.” This is done by wrapping the rope around the previous loops and “choking” them very tight together. The lashing is tied off with a square knot.

 

 

 



Then the excess—if you want, you take it around a couple of times and bury it. Or we can attach a bailer to it with a slip loop, so the bailer is hanging right there handy.

Now with the bigger boats, you’d just go with a straight clamp down, just clamp it down as tight as you can, but do it in several spots. And the way the lines were run, you’d come across and do figure eights. You’re talking about 16 or 20 wraps each time, and then you start getting into a figure eight wrap. That frapping then takes that whole rope and turns it into something like a solid piece of wood. When you knock on it, it sounds like a piece of wood.

 

Starting figure 8s More figure 8s

Above, left and right: Jay demonstrates making figure-eight bundles.


You will notice that Jay’s lashing weaves an attractive geometric pattern where the ropes cross each other. This, it turns out, is not just for looks. It actually locks down the ropes each time, making for less chance of catastrophic failure. I witnessed this after riding on a contemporary outrigger with folks from Windward Community College on O‘ahu. As we were putting the canoe up, we noticed that someone had vandalized the lashing by slashing it. Nonetheless, it had held together. “I’d like to have met the people who figured out this geometric pattern over time,” Jay says, “because those guys were geniuses. It was probably guys, because canoes were a male-dominated activity.”

Booms of the Makali'i
Above: The lashing on the booms of the Makali‘i voyaging canoe. Right: This vandalized lashing still holds together thanks to the interlocking pattern.

Cut lashing

These drawings show how James Wharram, whose Polynesian design I've been following for my canoe, suggests lashing the booms. It’s a very simple, in-and-out, over-and-under kind of lashing, exactly as Jay demonstrated, but without the wae. The rope goes through a hole, loops around the boom, then through the other hole, then does the same on the other side. Then wrap it around the lashing to “choke” it tight, and tie it off with a square knot.

Wharram drawings horiz

 

 

 

 

 


Lashing instructions from plans for the Melanesia, courtesy of James Wharram and Hanneke Boon.

 

And here’s what it looks like, finished:

Doug's lashing

The booms lashed to Doug's canoe.


It was a little confusing at first, and once in a while I still make a mistake, but mostly it goes very quickly. Now attaching the outrigger to the other end of the booms is an entirely different story, and the subject of my next installment.

Douglas Herman, NMAI


Doug Herman, senior geographer at the National Museum of the American Indian and a specialist on the cultural knowledge of Hawai'i and the Pacific Islands, is curator of the exhibition E Mau Ke Ea: The Sovereign Hawaiian Nation, on view at the museum in Washington, D.C., through January 2017. He also blogs for the Smithsonian and is the institution's liaison with the round-the-world voyage of the Hōkūleʻa, scheduled to visit Washington later this spring.

All photos by RDK Herman, Pacific Worlds, unless otherwise credited.

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Astonishing post on how you built and still you build those fantastic canoes. I recommend reading here. Greetings from one who is visiting Seville.

July 15, 2015

The Great Inka Road: Engaging visitors in the Inka creation story

One of the best examples of collaboration and synergy across a project I’ve been part of is the “Origin Story of the Inka,” an interactive book produced for the exhibition The Great Inka Road : Engineering an Empire. This simple touch-screen experience allows visitors to page through a digital book and see and hear the Inka creation story brought to life through brilliant images, with audio for every page in English or Spanish. People can read it online by scrolling down in the Ancestors section of the Inka Road website, and a printed version is for sale in the museum shop.

8 capas.eng

According to the Inka myth of origin, Inti, the sun, sent two of his children—Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo—to bring order and civilization to humankind. The pair emerged from Lake Titicaca and headed north to found a city. The city was Cusco. Their path was the first Inka Road.

8 capas
Sample screens, in English and Spanish, from "The Inka Creation Story." Design by Juanita Wrenn/WrennWorks, illustrations by Alejandra Egaña and Paz Puga, Ojitos Producciones.

The museum’s production team worked together to shorten the story into a form that would work well for visitors in the gallery. Illustrations by Alejandra Egaña and Paz Puga—partners in Ojitos Producciones, based in Chile—bring the story to life. Using reference visuals of museum objects and other Inka material culture, they produced images based on Inka iconography and colors. Their delightful compositions fit within the scholarly context of the exhibition and, we hope, will excite the imagination of younger visitors. These illustrations so inspired the exhibition team that we reached out to Alejandra and Paz to create drawings used to visualize aspects of Inka engineering elsewhere in the exhibition.

Juanita Wrenn of WrennWorks designed and programmed a simple, intuitive interactive experience accessible to even early readers. Juanita, who is based in North Carolina, surprised the team by offering to bring an early prototype to the museum, to make sure that what she was producing would work on the gallery touch-screen monitors. Her visit reflects her passion and her dedication to getting all the details right.

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The interactive book's narrator and her proud mother.

For bilingual audio and sound design we relied on the expertise of the museum’s staff. Veronica Quiguango (Quechua), a collections specialist at the museum’s Cultural Resources Center, offered the talents of her six-year-old daughter. We set up a recording session engineered by NMAI Media Group senior producer Gussie Lehman, and our narrator amazed us by enthusiastically recording the stroy, in English and Spanish, in a single session. She has so much energy we had to take a couple breaks to let her get up and run around the studio a little bit. We felt lucky to capture a wonderfully unique performance that shows off this young person’s fantastic personality. We may eventually add narration in Quechua, since her mother is fluent and she is working on that language as well!

With a wonderful narration in hand, we turned to NMAI Media group producer Mark Christal to add a bit of ambience and sound design. Mark recorded sounds of water, footsteps on a gravel road, and electronic effects combined with music from NMAI Cultural interpreter José Montaño (Qulla [Aymara]) to provide audio details to match the colorful illustrations and the power of the myth.

This project has surpassed our expectations with brilliant contributions from international artists, technicians, staff, and certainly the youngest narrator we have ever worked with. We know that it is an important part of the Inka Road exhibition, helping visitors of all ages access the story of the origin of the Inka Empire and understand the importance of the city of Cusco. Collaborative projects like these are especially exciting, since each contribution complements the others and we end up with something that no single person here could have imagined.

—Dan Davis 

Dan Davis is the manager of the NMAI Media Group.

The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire is on view at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C., through June 1, 2018.

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I paged through this interactive in both languages several times. I couldn't get enough! I grew up with this legend. Every elementary school student in Peru must learn it. The narration and sound effects were utterly captivating. I just wanted to find your narrator and give her a big hug! The illustrations are simply beautiful, and so appealing! I feel a coloring book coming. You really captured, in a most charmed way, this well loved origin story and have made it even more accessible for generations to come. Buen trabajo!

Amazing post.Very informative...Thanks for sharing.

hi , i read this articles The illustrations are simply beautiful, and so appealing , especially the interactive book you produced for the exhibition its amazing ..

June 24, 2015

Live symposium webcast June 25 & 26—The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire

Chinchaysuyu-suspension-bridge-peru
Q’eswachaka suspension bridge, Apurímac River, Canas Province, Cusco, Peru, 2014. Photo by Doug McMains, NMAI 

On June 25 and 26, the National Museum of the American Indian will present a live webcast of the symposium The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire. The symposium celebrates the exhibition of the same title, opening at the museum in Washington, D.C., on Friday, June 26.

The Great Inka Road, a sacred network of roads 40,000 kilometers (nearly 25,000 miles) long, connected a confederation of more than 100 Native nations in six modern countries—Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru—and linked them to Cusco, the imperial capital. In 2014, UNESCO recognized this monumental achievement by including the Inka Road on the World Heritage list.

During the symposium, engineers, archaeologists, and other experts and scholars will discuss the political, economic, and religious ideas that enabled the Inka to consolidate power, and the communications, transportation, and agricultural infrastructure that made it possible for them to administer a vast and diverse empire.

The symposium and live webcast will be presented Thursday, June 25, from 1:30 to 5:30 pm, and Friday, June 26, from 9 am to 5:30 pm. Friday's program will feature Spanish-speaking scholars; live webcasts will be offered in Spanish and with simultaneous translation into English.

The webcasts will be archived on the museum's YouTube channel a bit later in the summer.

Symposium program

NMAI live webcasts

#InkaRoad

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June 22, 2015

On the Inka Road: Conserving an Incensario

This ceramic (NMAI 20/6313) is one of approximately 150 objects within the exhibition The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire, opening at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington on Friday, June 26. This object, called an incensario, is from the Tiwanaku culture in the Katari Valley of Bolivia and dates to AD 600 to 900. 

Incensarios are incense burners or lamps, often associated with mortuary practices. Tiwanaku incensarios are characterized by their hyperboloid shape; scalloped rim; zoomorphic head and tail depicting a feline, condor, or llama; and elaborate design motifs, which portray geometric designs, feline faces, condors, and other beings of symbolic significance. 

Incensario 1 Incensario 2

Left to right: Tiwanaku incensario (incense burner, NMAI 20/6313), recto (front) and verso (back) before treatment. 


This incensario with feline head and tail and feline and condor design motifs was poorly reconstructed at some point before entering the collection of the Museum of the American Indian, now Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian. Sherds were misaligned, detracting from the ceramic’s beauty and detail. 

Incensario 3
Conservator (and blog-writer) Beth Holford cleaning the surface of the incensario with a soft brush.

In discussions with curator Ann McMullen and staff conservator Emily Kaplan, we decided that taking the ceramic apart and reconstructing it would enable the museum to present the incensario's original aesthetics without distraction. We anticipated that this process would take many hours in the Conservation Lab. Fortunately, I was able to start several months before the Conservation team began work on the rest of the objects for the Inka Road exhibition. 

Initial treatment included a surface cleaning and removal of old paint and fill material so that the adhesive holding the sherds together would be more accessible. Examination under ultraviolet light revealed an orange and white fluorescence, suggesting that at least one of the adhesives was likely shellac. Shellac can cause problems for conservators because it becomes less reversible as it ages. This was the case with this vessel, and it was necessary to use a mix of solvents as well as a paint stripper to soften the adhesive enough to deconstruct the ceramic. 

Incensario 4 Incensario 5Right to left: The left side of the incensario in visible light, then in ultraviolet light; the orange and white fluorescence was a clue that shellac might have been used to make earlier repairs. 

Once the ceramic was in pieces, I could remove the remaining adhesive residue mechanically— using a scalpel and working under magnification—so that the edges of the sherds were exposed and a more precise reconstruction could be accomplished. 

Incensario 6The object in pieces: all the adhesive has been removed from the ceramic.

Incensario 7

The vessel was reconstructed with a more conservation-appropriate adhesive—one that is chemically stable and readily reversible. Areas of loss were filled with a stable acrylic spackle. Select locations were painted with reversible acrylic paints in order to provide visitors to the exhibition with a more complete and aesthetically continuous appearance. 

These areas include locations where the original ceramic was missing, as well as locations where the slip design had been lost. Discussions with Ann McMullen helped identify areas of design that could be safely interpreted from similar designs on this vessel as well as others in this and other collections. Our goal was to preserve the incensario's cultural, historic, and aesthetic integrity, but we wouldn't mind if visitors were also thrilled by how wonderful it looks.

Incensario 8

Incensario 9
Incensario stages Tiwanaku-jaguar

Top right: Beth reconstructing the ceramic. 2nd row, left to right: The incensario before and after loss compensation and inpainting. 3rd row, left to right: The incensario before, during, and after treatment. Bottom row: The incensario as it appears in the companion book to the exhibition: Ceremonial incense burner in the form of a puma, AD 600–900. Tiwanaku, Bolivia. Ceramic, paint. 26 × 34.5 × 21.7 cm. Photo by Ernest Amoroso, NMAI. (20/6313)

—Beth Holford

Beth Holford is an independent conservator with Holford Objects Conservation, LLC.

Unless otherwise credited, all photographs are courtesy of NMAI Conservation.

The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire will be on view at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C., from June 26, 2015, to June 1, 2018.

 #InkaRoad

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June 18, 2015

On the Great Inka Road: Conserving an Arybalo

Arybalo 1GuamanPomaJune


Left:
Inka arybalo (ceramic vessel, NMAI 14/5679) awaiting conservation. Right: Illustration of Hawkay Kuski, the rest from harvest, showing an Inka woman pouring a'qa (maize beer) from an arybalo into qeros (cups). Pen and ink drawing by Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala (Quechua, ca. 1535–1616). From El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno (The First New Chronicle and Good Government, 
1615). Royal Library, Copenhagen GKS 2232 4º.

 

During the last few years, conservators have been busy working on the objects that will be on view in the exhibition The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire, opening Friday, June 26, at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C. Objects illustrated in the book that accompanies the exhibition—including this arybalo, or ceramic vessel—had to be conserved early so that they would look their best for museum photographer Ernest Amoroso. 

Arybalos, distinctive vessels found in every part of the Inka Empire, were typically used for holding maize beer—chicha in Spanish, or a'qa in Quechua, a language older than the Inka and still widely spoken in the Andes. At 112.5 cm tall, this particular arybalo (NMAI 14/5679) is one of the largest known in the world and would have helped people celebrate in a big way. Note the pointed base and flared neck, characteristics of all arybalos that made pouring from them easier. The handles were made to be strung with rope for easier carrying.  

In addition to the characteristics that made arybalos such great containers, this one had an unexpected feature: a round hole in the vessel's back. My colleagues in Conservation and I were perplexed until we took a closer look at the arybalo's cracks, which were visible as dark lines around the hole and through the designs on the front. 

Arybalo 2 Arybalo 3
Left: The back of the arybalo and the puzzling hole. Right: A crack running across the side of the arybalo and through the designs on the front. 

By studying the cracks, we realized that at an unknown date the vessel broke and was put back together using shellac and metal wire. This was a typical repair practice for antiquities collectors and restorers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Holes were drilled on the edges of broken pieces, then metal wire was inserted through the front and twisted in the interior, putting the pieces back together in a manner similar to stapling. The previous restorer filled in the cracks and the wired areas using plaster, then painted the repairs to match the surrounding ceramic. Over time, the color in the restored areas darkened and became distracting.

Arybalo 4

Arybalo conservation 5

Left: One of the wire repairs. Right: An earlier plaster restoration: the blue arrow points to painted plaster that darkened over time; the red arrow, to a wire mend and damaged ceramic exposed after the plaster repair was removed.


This arybalo, however, is too large for anyone to reach the repairs via the neck and twist the metal wires tight, so restorers cut an access hole into the back of the arybalo. The hole, therefore, was not part of the original function of the object. The metal-wire repair technique is no longer used by conservators because it damages original surface, and there are adhesives available today that are strong enough to hold ceramics. 

During this restoration, conservators removed the plaster repairs using cotton swabs dampened with water. Conservator Beth Holford and I then applied a conservation-grade acrylic spackle fill to the cracks and over the exposed metal wires. After making sure the fills were even with surrounding ceramic, we painted them to blend in with the original designs. 

Arybalo  6

Arybalo 7 Arybalo 8

Top: Conservator (and blog-writer) Fran Ritchie and conservation colleague Beth Holford working on the arybalo. Above: A new repair made with conservation-grade acrylic spackle, before and after it has been painted to blend in with the original pattern. 

Total time spent treating the arybalo to this point? More than 50 hours. Come see the conserved arybalo in The Great Inka Road, on view at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C., from June 26, 2015, to June 1, 2018!

Team arybalo NMAI 145679
Top, from left to right:
 Conservator Emily Kaplan, Collections specialist Veronica Quiguango, mountmaker Shelly Uhlir, Fran Ritchie, and Collections specialist Tony Williams prepare to transport the arybalo, now ready for its close-up, to the museum's photo studio. Above: Inka arybalo, AD 1450–1532. Peru. Ceramic, paint. Photo by Ernest Amoroso, NMAI. (14/5679) 

—Fran Ritchie

Fran Ritchie worked on The Great Inka Road as an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in conservation at the National Museum of the American Indian. She is currently a conservator at the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

Unless otherwise credited, all photos are courtesy of NMAI Conservation.

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