February 29, 2016

We’re looking for a special teacher, and it might be YOU

The National Museum of the American Indian is looking for a special teacher to play an important part in Native Knowledge 360°, the museum’s national education initiative to inspire and promote the improvement of teaching and learning about American Indians. If you're currently teaching in grades 5 through 12, that teacher might well be you.

What is Native Knowledge 360°? 

Teachers studying winter count
Teachers taking part in a workshop at the museum study a winter count. Some Native nations used winter counts to record an event for each year—from first snowfall to first snowfall—as a historical reminder.

Native Knowledge 360° (NK360°) provides educators and students with new perspectives about Native American history and cultures. Most Americans have only been exposed to part of the story, as told from a single perspective through the lenses of popular media and textbooks. NK360° provides educational materials and teacher training that incorporate Native narratives, more comprehensive histories, and accurate information to enlighten and inform teaching and learning about Native America. NK360° challenges common assumptions about Native people—their cultures, their roles in United States and world history, and their contributions to the arts, sciences, and literature. Native Knowledge 360° offers a view that includes not only the past, but also the richness and vibrancy of Native peoples and cultures today.

Teacher-in-Residence and Summer Teacher-in-Residence programs

The museum invites teachers to apply to its Teacher-in-Residence (TIR) and Summer Teacher-in-Residence (STIR) programs. These programs support the NK360° effort to provide educators and students with new perspectives about American Indian history, culture, and contemporary lives.

One teacher each will be selected to hold a ten-month residency (school year) and a six-to-eight-week residency (summer) at National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C. Residents will work with staff and participating American Indian communities to create dynamic online lessons using the museum’s extensive resources. Additionally, the resident teacher will serve as an advisor to and tester of online lessons currently under development. As a culmination of the residency, the selected teacher will create a unique project, activity, digital app, or lesson for national classroom use.

Want to know more?

Click here for a description of the program, eligibility, and application.

Apply now. Applications are due by April 1, 2016. We invite you to participate in this exciting new program!

Comments (1)

    » Post a Comment

Yup.

February 10, 2016

3D Scans of Inka Stonework—Live Online at SI X 3D

Capturing 3D data in Cusco, Peru
Jon Blundell, a 3D digitization specialist at the Smithsonian, capturing 3D data points of the Inka archaeological site at Pisac. Pisac, Peru, 2014. Photo by Samy Chiclla.

If you visit Cusco, Peru, the monumental stonework of the Inka capital will give you a sense of the Inka's imperial ambition. If you come to the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C., the exhibition The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire will show you how the architecture of Cusco reflects the empire's understanding of the Andean environment and principles of construction, as well as political administration. 

But what if you never travel to Peru or Washington? You can visit the exhibition website in English and Spanish or read the companion book of essays. Or, for the first time for this museum, you can experiment with a set of three-dimensional digital models of sites in Cusco, created by the 3D staff of the Smithsonian’s Digitization Program Office

The Cusco models are part of a much larger effort to make the research and collections of the Smithsonian Institution more widely accessible. The institution houses more than 138 million objects, artworks, and scientific specimens. At any given time, less than one percent of these objects are on display. Working with the Smithsonian’s 19 museums, nine research centers, and National Zoo to prioritize material for digitization, the Digital Program Office has set a goal of making ten percent of the collections available online, primarily as two-dimensional digital images. Smithsonian X 3D is targeting far fewer objects. But with web browsers now capable of supporting 3D imagery through webGL, Smithsonian X 3D is breaking new ground.

The Smithsonian X 3D website includes models, as well as a gallery of behind-the-scenes videos about 3D technology in a museum and science setting. Smithsonian X 3D's Inka Road page houses 3D images of stonework from five sites around Cusco, with notes and videos keyed to details of each site and, for Saqsaywaman, a brief tour: 

Waka Pachatusan, a sacred site near Cusco on the road to the province of Antisuyu: 

 


A section of Inka stonework along Hatunrumiyoc Street, including the 12-angled stone that epitomizes Inka dry-stone masonry: 

Screen shot of Hatunrumiyoc


A section of the original wall of the Qorikancha, the religious center of the empire: 

Screen shot of the Qorikancha


A section of wall at Saqsaywaman, the temple of the sun in upper Cusco: 

Screen shot of Saqsaywaman


And an Inka double-jamb doorway, one of three still standing:

Screen shot of the double jamb doorway


To create these models, Smithsonian 3D digitization specialist Jon Blundell joined the museum’s Inka Road project team in Cusco during the summer of 2014. Dr. Ramiro Matos (Quechua), an Andean archaeologist and co-curator of The Great Inka Road, and consulting scholars and other museum specialists on the project team worked with Jon to identify sites around the city for 3D imaging. This was the museum’s first use of 3D scanning technology. “Identifying sites was collaborative,” Jon says. “The team knew that 3D scanning was a tool they wanted to deploy to tell the story. It was interesting to work with them to figure out, What is here that would be compelling as a 3D model, could be captured in the time we have, and has a story behind it?” Once the team had selected the sites, Jon used a combination of laser scanning and photogrammetry—a technique that uses digital cameras and specialized software to create 3D data—to record the surface of each site as billions of 3D data points. 

Jon Blundell on Hatunrumiyoc Street
Jon checking his work on the double-jamb doorway. Cusco, Peru, 2014. Photo by Samy Chiclla.

The Smithsonian X 3D team has digitized other large sites—colonial church burials in Jamestown, Virginia, and a field of fossil whales uncovered at Cerro Ballena, Chile—but working in an urban setting presented different challenges. The City of Cusco provided extraordinary access to the places chosen for scanning, allowing the project team to use the streets at the three in-town sites for long periods of time. The manager of the Saqsaywaman Archaeological Park opened the site at sunrise, long before tourists would arrive, so that Jon and his assistants could collected 3D data, and other members of the project team could film interviews with scholars consulting on the project. And the owner of the modern hotel that uses the Inka double-jamb door as an entranceway graciously let the Smithsonian include that site in the project. 

Back at the Smithsonian, Jon used software to layer the information he had captured in the field and build each 3D model. He began by creating a point cloud. Vince Rossi, a program officer on the 3D staff, describes the data behind the point cloud as essentially a text file with XYZ values for each data point. This durable information will remain useful even as the museum community establishes new standards for archiving data and as software developers write new algorithms to make sense of it. 

The next refinement was to create a black-and-white 3D surface model for each site from its point cloud; laser scanning and photogrammetry geometry data was combined to produce high-resolution geometry using the strengths of each capture method. Next the photogrammetry data was used to projected color onto the geometry. The result is geometrically detailed, accurately colored models. In Cusco, Jon recorded perhaps 40 to 100 gigabytes of raw data for each site. Before posting the models on Smithsonian X 3D, he used techniques developed for digital animators to compress the data and create 3D models that maintain visual fidelity, yet can be downloaded quickly even on mobile devices. 

“That’s what our office does,” Vince explains. “We’re not inventing new technology. We’re leveraging tools that were developed for other industries and developing workflows—the nitty-gritty process of collecting the data and putting together the tool chain that gives us the products the Smithsonian needs. We’re using existing tools in new ways.” 

The Smithsonian X 3D staff compares 3D on the web today to video a handful of years ago. Museums have long had the technology to scan objects in three dimensions at very high resolution. But the ability to deliver 3D content directly to people online, without requiring viewers to download browser plug-ins, is a recent development. People can also download 3D data from the Smithsonian X 3D website, then visualize it in their own software or use it for their own scientific or creative projects, under the Smithsonian terms of use. “That’s more of an experiment,” Vince says. “We’ve already seen people do exciting things—teachers in the classroom creating 3D prints. More and more public libraries have 3D printers.” 

3D-printed Hatunrumiyoc puzzles aside (yes, Jon, Vince, and the third member of the 3D staff, Adam Metallo, have made them), what does 3D imaging bring to Smithsonian research? It provides scientists with new tools to document fieldwork and gives conservators a fast, accurate way to record and compare the condition of objects in the collections. It also enables researchers, and the rest of us, to do things that are impossible to do with actual museum objects. 

To get a glimpse of what that can mean, we have to leave Cusco and look at the 3D model of the Cosmological Buddha. Keith Wilson, a curator at the Freer and Sackler Galleries, the Smithsonian’s museum of Asian art, explains in one of the tours that accompany the model, what distinguished this sculpture are the narrative scenes that completely cover the monk’s robe. On the Smithsonian X 3D site, we can turn the sculpture around to have a 360-degree view or look at a flat map of the carvings, but that’s just the start. 

“Nothing replaces the experience of seeing the sculpture in the gallery at the Freer–Sackler,” Vince says. “But if we go under the hood and turn off the color, that does interesting things, because the color of the stone was interfering with seeing the geometry of the surface. We can further bring out the geometric detail using an ambient occlusion map, which essentially darkens areas of high curvature and lighten areas of low curvature. We can adjust detail live in the browser. All of a sudden we’re better able to get a much better idea of the carving. This is still an accurate representation of the sculpture. It’s just a different way to visualize what’s really there.” 

Cosmic Buddha

This poster, which is available in large format (500 MB file) via the SI X 3D Download webpage (free and open to the public with registration), shows the components of the digital model of the Cosmological Buddha. From left to right: Photo texture, composite occlusion (note how the surface carvings stand out), geometry, normal map, and individual occlusion channels. A print-ready model of the sculpture in low, medium, and high resolution is downloadable from the same site.


“If we back up and look at 3D technology, it’s really nothing more than a form of measurement. We’ve been able to measure things for thousands of years. If we look at the way research at museums is generally conducted, it has included very accurate point-to-point measurement of landmark points on an object or specimen. With a 3D scan, we’re able to replace those few dozen measurements with tens of millions of data points. We’re able to provide whole new tools to researchers and open up a whole new world of investigation. By putting these models online, we’re also opening that world to the public.”


The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire is on view at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C., through June 1, 2018.

The SI X 3D website includes more information on digitization projects at the Smithsonian, including a gallery of videos that highlight other 3D projects at the Smithsonian and explain the digitization process in detail. 

Comments (0)

    » Post a Comment

October 07, 2014

“So, what’s up with all those questions about treaties on columns throughout the museum?”

Treaties interactive a1
What's the story behind the purple columns around the museum? We're glad you asked. They're interactive learning stations for the
new exhibition Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American
Indian Nations,
 and we hope they'll prompt visitors to keep asking questions.

American Indian treaties are a topic about which visitors have a lot of interest and curiosity. Engage them in a conversation about treaties, and they will often shake their heads and say, “Oh yeah, those,” and then begin to ask questions: “Are treaties still valid?” “Do treaties give American Indians special rights?” “Aren’t treaties bad for American Indians?” “Weren’t all the treaties just broken anyway?” Starting with such foundational questions, the exhibit team that produced Nation to Nation” Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations is using a well-known educational strategy to attract visitors to the major new exhibition on view in Washington through fall 2018.

On the Potomac level and on the 3rd and 4th floors of the museum, selected columns have been painted “wampum purple”—a Nation to Nation design theme—festooned with the flags of Native Nations, and fitted with wooden interactives that pose and answer important questions about treaties. The purpose of these treaties stations is to pique visitors’ interest in the Nation to Nation exhibit. But their content is not just typical Q & A. 

The treaties stations employ an educational technique known as “inquiry-based learning.” The idea behind this approach is to engage learners in a discovery of the content, instead of just telling them everything you want them to know. The “telling” approach is not the most effective educational strategy and often results in something my mother used to characterize as “going in one ear and coming out the other.” Inquiry-based learning begins with something that is compelling—for example, an image, a question, an object, or a combination thereof—then encourages people to explore it. 

Interactive 1b Interactive 1c

Interactive-1-d
Panels from a treaties interactive. (Click
each image for a larger view.)

 

 

 

 

 

 


 


At each treaties station, visitors are engaged with a question and image or images related to treaties (above, left). Visitors then rotate the panel manually, but instead of finding the answer on the next panel, they find a new image, quotation, or excerpt from a historical document—something that requires them to think again (above, right). Visitors then rotate the mechanism to a final panel, where the answer is revealed and a more detailed explanation is offered (right)

Each of the treaties station columns has the words “Find out more in the Nation to Nation exhibit,” stenciled on it. Our hope is that more visitors will be intrigued to learn what is inside the exhibit by interacting with these important treaty questions outside the exhibit. We plan to evaluate the interactives’ effectiveness in a formal way.

So, when you visit the museum, try them out. We hope that they’ll help you build your basic knowledge about treaties and that you’ll find yourself thinking about the history of treaties and their ongoing importance before you even reach the exhibit on the 4th floor. 

Then let us know what you think.

—Ed Schupman            

Ed Schupman is a citizen of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation of Oklahoma and works in the museum's education department supporting exhibit teams and developing resources for K–12 students and teachers.

Comments (0)

    » Post a Comment

September 22, 2014

Let’s Begin a New Chapter in NMAI History


This week marks an important milestone for the community of the National Museum of the American Indian —the 10th anniversary of the opening of the museum in Washington, D.C. I’m proud to say NMAI has helped redefine the way our visitors understand the Native American experience and Native Peoples, thanks to the generous support of numerous Native Nations, members, trustees, and staff. More than 25,000 Native Americans gathered for the museum opening in 2004—the largest gathering of indigenous people in Washington, D.C., to date—and we look forward to greeting thousands more over the next decade.

Director Gover NMAI-0283
Kevin Gover, director of the Smithsonian's National Museum of the America Indian.

This year also marks the 25th anniversary of the museum’s landmark founding legislation; the 20th anniversary of the opening of our first location, in New York City at the George Gustav Heye Center; and the 15th anniversary of the opening of our Cultural Resources Center in Suitland, Maryland. These are fine accomplishments, and we are proud and grateful for what we all have done together.

There’s still important work to be done. Most Americans have been taught a limited—and often mistaken—version of Native American history. I still remember the stereotypes that defined my childhood: Indians were figures of the past, often pictured on a rocky hillside dressed in feathers and buckskin. It was images like these that made growing up as an Indian child harder than it had to be.

The true story of our heritage is so much more nuanced, complex, and fascinating. Understanding this complexity can help us understand our present and prepare for our future as a multicultural nation. This is where NMAI can play a vital role in the coming decades, and we are committed to taking on this role with greater focus and intensity. 

NMAI-0080 NMAI-0067


NMAI-0225a

NMAI-0335 NMAI-0344

 

 

 

Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations, on view at the museum in Washington from September 21, 2014, through fall 2018. A more detailed caption for these photographs appears below.


Over the next quarter century, we’re committed to telling the authentic history of the Western Hemisphere and Native Peoples to citizens, policymakers, and policy influencers nationwide.  We’re embarking on this new effort in a number of ways, including through groundbreaking exhibitions such as Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations, which is now open to the public. We’re also accelerating our efforts to work with educators, providing classroom materials designed to instill a richer understanding of our history as Americans. And we’ve launched an ambitious campaign to fund more than $75 million in projects that will sustain the next generation of our work.

We understand that this kind of change cannot happen overnight. It will take time and resources. But it’s my hope that our work over the next 25 years can begin to correct the deep-rooted stereotypes, inaccuracies, and omissions that defined my childhood and continue to contribute to the challenges faced by Tribal Nations.

Please join me as we retell America’s story and build understandings upon which the Indian Nations can achieve their highest aspirations.

                                                                                                —Kevin Gover

 

For more information on ways you can support NMAI, visit http://nmai.si.edu/support or email NMAImember@si.edu

Kevin Gover is the director of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian and a citizen of the Pawnee Tribe of Oklahoma. 

 

Photo block above: Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations, on view at the museum in Washington from September 21, 2014, through fall 2018. 

Top: Examples of early diplomacy between include (left) the 1682 Lenape Treaty with colonist William Penn and (right) the 1794 Treaty of Canandiagua between the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and the United States. The Treaty of Canandiagua, one of eight original treaties that will rotate on exhibit to preserve fragile documents from light damage, can be seen now through February 2015. 

Center: A display of pipe bags, represents both the importance of ceremony to diplomacy and the northern Plains Nations that were party to the Horse Creek Treaty (1861). From left to right: Tsitsistas/Shutai (Cheyenne) pipe bag, ca. 1851 (NMAI 8/8037); Sahnish (Arikara) pipe bag, ca. 1880 (NMAI 20/1400); Yankton pipe bag, ca. 1880 (NMAI 16/7255); AssiniIoine pipe bag, ca. 1880 (NMAI 12/7393); Numakiki (Mandan) pipe bag, ca. 1851 (NMAI 8/8088); Northern Inunaina (Arapaho) pipe bag, ca. 1885 (NMAI 23/1176); Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) pipe bag, ca.1870 (NMAI 14/828); Minitari (Hidatsa) pipe bag, ca. 1880 (American Museum of Natural History 50.1/5350B); Shoshone pipe bag, ca. 1870 (NMAI 2/3294). 

Bottom: From the mid-19th century unti the present day, generations of Indian leaders have traveled to Washington, D.C., to remind successive administrations of the United States' nation-to-nation treaty obligations.

All photos are by Paul Morigi/AP Images for the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian.

May 29, 2014

The Artist Leadership Program Class of 2014 Shares the Experience


The Artist Leadership Program (ALP) of the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) aims to rebuild cultural self-confidence, challenge personal boundaries, and foster cultural continuity while reflecting artistic diversity. ALP's goal is to recognize and promote indigenous artistic leadership. At the same time, the program seeks to enhance the artistic growth, development, and leadership of emerging student artists and scholars through workshops and youth public art projects in the artists' communities. Selection for the program is based on the artists’ proposed research, proposed workshops or public art projects, digital portfolios, resumes, artist statements, and letters of community support.

During April 2014, the museum hosted Holly Nordlum, Gerald Cournoyer, Royce Manuel, and Nathalie Picard—outstanding artists from Alaska, South Dakota, Arizona, and Québec—while they conducted research in the museum’s collections. Here, Holly, Gerald, and Nathalie share their aspirations and values, and their thoughts about Native leadership and the arts. Later in the summer, we'll hear from Royce on his research into the technology of bows and arrows and their importance to Aw-Thum men and boys. 

—Keevin Lewis 

 

ALP 2014 a
From left to right: Gerald Cournoyer (Oglala Lakota), Nathalie Picard (Huron-Wendat), Holly Nordlum (Inupiaq), and Royce Manuel (Ak-Mierl Aw-Thum)—individual artists selected for the 2014 Artist Leadership Program at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI). The NMAI Cultural Resources Center (CRC), in the background, houses the museum's object collections and archives. All photos are by Keevin Lewis (Navajo), NMAI.


Holly Nordlum

I am Holly Mititquq Nordlum, Inupiaq visual artist, and I live in Anchorage. I grew up in Kotzebue, Alaska. My work reflects where I come from, but also who I am now as a Native person, an American, a mother, and a common woman. I use printmaking, painting, sculpture, and other mediums to express my ideas about life.

My intent when I came to the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington was to do museum collections research and find as many objects as I could to show my summer high school students in Anchorage—urban Native students who might not have any idea where they came from or who they are as Native people. I wanted to find something for everyone. Also, while I was looking in the NMAI collections, I was naturally interested in Inupiaq items and was so inspired by what I found. I took many photo images and can’t wait to get home to get working.

Holly Nordlum 1
Holly Nordlum photographing objects that will click with her students in Anchorage.


There are so many significant moments of the program to recall! But I do remember that I held a pair of Inupiaq wooden sun goggles (glasses) up to my face and felt I had stepped back in time. I was amazed at the objects the museum has in the collections, but also at what my own people created with the technology available to them. I hope to get that across to my students.

I guess my biggest perception shift during this trip is that, as Native Americans, we are the same. We are all affected by the same issues and government restrictions, whether we are on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota or in a village in Northwest Alaska. The climate might be different, but the lives and culture are so similar it’s hard to deny our connection. The NMAI Artist Leadership experience has only increased my feelings of community.

I am also more determined. The experience at NMAI and the Artist Leadership Program confirmed and strengthened my quest not only to educate myself, but also to give my students more as far as a connection and community. I would encourage all artists to apply to the NMAI Artist Leadership Program as this program was so inspiring and exciting and gave me so much to work with for future art projects and for my students. 
 

Gerald Cournoyer

I'm Gerald Cournoyer, an Oglala Lakota painter from the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, and I recently relocated to the Washington, D.C., area. My goal with the NMAI Artist Leadership Program changed from making pots to actually harvesting raw clay and turning it into useable clay.There is more to making pots than just coiling and firing.

Cournoyer a
Gerald Cournoyer working with reference materials from the archives and the Vine Deloria Jr. Library at the CRC. 

When I initially applied to the ALP program, I was working at our local tribal community college. Now I want to give back to my community this knowledge of pit-firing pots. We will use slip to decorate the pots and fire the slip in a fire pit. The process will be a learning experience for me as well as for the community.

I recommend this program to any and all Native artists for the opportunity to share new knowledge and experiences from the museum. The NMAI and Smithsonian collections are a great resource for information. You will learn more about your people in several different areas, not just about what you are studying. Getting into these different collections brought my Native American art history classes to life. I am learning through my ancestors—they are speaking to me with an ancient voice. In a way I feel I am bringing their spirit home with me. Throughout history Native people have adapted to climate change, invaders, traders, and technology. We continue to tweak our art forms with this new information while keeping our connections to our ancestors. 


Nathalie Picard 

My name is Nathalie Picard, and I am Huron-Wendat. My community is in Wendake, Québec, in Canada. I recently moved to the United States to live in Oregon, and I am a musician. I studied the transverse flute at the Conservatory of Quebec and the University of Montreal in the jazz and pop music program. I specialized in Cuban jazz and Latin jazz. I also play the Native American flute, I am a composer and storyteller, and I sing traditional songs with the drum.

Picard a
Nathalie Picard studying a flute and other musical instruments in the NMAI collections. 

I came to the National Museum of American Indian to gather information about Iroquoian music, musical instruments, and traditional longhouse songs to share with my community and teach the teens and young adults in Wendake. I was amazed that there was an enormous amount of cultural material in the collections of the Smithsonian from my tribe, too! What a gold mine of objects, images, and knowledge from my culture! It is very touching to see up close so many objects in the Smithsonian collections. This research experience doesn't compare to looking at pictures in publications or seeing objects on exhibit. 

It always has been a dream for me to do research in the audio archives of the Smithsonian, and it came true. This experience has been incredible! One beautiful surprise along the way was that I was able to see a wampum that my great-great-grandfather, who was chief, was wearing in an old photo. How amazing it was to see this personal family experience reflected so far from home! 

My collections research in Washington, D.C., and getting to know the different archivists of the different museums and archives will be very helpful in the future. The Smithsonian and Library of Congress staff helped me find what I needed and showed me where to search. I will be able to continue to do more productive research even from my home. 

I also had time to get to know each of the other visiting artists and what they do in their lives. We were able to share our experiences together for 12 days. I now feel I have even more new information and knowledge to share with my people in Wendake that will hopefully instill in the lives of teenagers greater cultural interest toward their ancestors’ traditions! I realize that art was the way of life of Native people; they were so creative and patient. The world has changed now, and it is too bad that these traits and knowledge are disappearing. Today I find that modern Native artists carry tradition inside themselves, and they feel that their traditions, songs, and stories need to get out into the world! They have important things to say through their art.

Since I moved to the United States two years ago, I have been able to integrate myself professionally. It is good to be able to share and exchange information with other Native artists in this program. There are things that are beyond words that make us understand each other better, and it feels good. Usually we think of ourselves as a minority in today's world. But for two weeks, it felt like I was on a journey in time, between the past and the future. My head was full of the images and impressions from the objects in the collections, and my hands are now ready to create new projects from these new sources of inspiration.

I am so happy and feel honored to have had the opportunity to be part of this amazing journey that is ALP! Thank you, Keevin, NMAI, and all the wonderful staff! önenh!  


To learn more about Artist Leadership Program opportunities for mid-career artists and arts organizations, including detailed information on how to apply, see the ALP page on the museum's website. 

Keevin Lewis (Navajo) is coordinator of the Artist Leadership Program at the National Museum of the America Indian. 

Comments (0)

    » Post a Comment