« October 2015 | Main | December 2015 »

November 30, 2015

The Indian Arts and Crafts Board: Native-Designed Fabrics

255518 lloyd kiva new desert

Lloyd Kiva New (Cherokee, 1916–2002), Desert, ca. 1965. Printed cotton fabric, 189.3 x 90 cm. Indian Arts and Crafts Board Collection, Department of the Interior, at the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. NMAI 25/5518


When the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA) opened in Santa Fe in 1962, the art school offered textile and clothing design courses along with classes in painting, sculpture, photography, music, drama, dance, and creative writing. Lloyd Kiva New (Cherokee, 1916–2002), a co-founder of the IAIA, taught a printed textile design course at the school, instructing students in creating silkscreened and hand-dyed fabrics.[1] New began his career in art and design in the 1940s. After graduating from the Art Institute of Chicago and serving in the U.S. Navy during the Second World War, he opened Kiva Studio in 1946 in Scottsdale, Arizona, selling men’s and women’s fashion.[2] New also sold his clothing, accessories, and jewelry throughout the country, including a line to the department store Neiman Marcus.[3] 

In 1966 New exhibited his vibrant silkscreened fabric at the art gallery of the Center for Arts of Indian America in Washington, D.C. The center had been established that year as a nonprofit organization dedicated to “preserving and promoting the visual, literary, and performing arts of American Indians.”[4] The IACB purchased fabric designed by New, which drew inspiration from the American Southwest.[5] The cotton fabric entitled Desert features horizontal variations of ochre, greens, gold, and reds with bleached serrated columns at the top. The Pottery cotton fabric is more representational, with abstracted Pueblo pottery designs in green against a yellow background bordered by rows of brown, green, and gold hues.

255530 lloyd kiva new pottery

Lloyd Kiva New (Cherokee, 1916–2002), Pottery, ca. 1965. Printed cotton fabric, 193.5 x 128.2 cm. Indian Arts and Crafts Board Collection, Department of the Interior, at the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. NMAI 25/5530


Besides the fabric by New, the IACB Headquarters Collection contains other fabric pieces designed by Native artists. In 1972, the IACB purchased six cuts of differing fabric from Red Rock Tie-Dyeing, Inc., a Navajo-owned company based in Red Rock, on the Navajo Reservation near Gallup, New Mexico. Alice Begay (Diné, 1922–2009) operated Red Rock with her daughter Virginia Belone (Diné). They created their designs—geometric abstractions of clouds, mountains, butterflies, and lizards in contrasting colors—by clamping folded cotton cloth between shaped wooden blocks, then immersing the fabric in dye.[6]

256929 red rock clouds

Alice Begay (Diné, 1922–2009) and Virginia Belone (Diné), Red Rock Tie-Dyeing, Inc., Clouds, 1972. Red Rock, New Mexico. Wood block tie-dyed cotton fabric, 290 x 103 cm. Indian Arts and Crafts Board Collection, Department of the Interior, at the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. NMAI 25/6929


Another Navajo company, Nizhonie Fabrics, Inc., advertised silkscreened fabric with patterns adapted from Southwestern textiles, pottery, baskets, and petroglyphs. Nizhonie, which means “beautiful” in Navajo, was based in Cortez, Colorado, and run by brothers Frank and Keith Austin. The company produced 20 fabric prints, all silkscreened by hand, on broadcloth, corduroy, and velveteen. Besides overall-printed fabric, Nizhonie offered 10 border prints especially for “draperies, bed spreads, table cloths, furniture covers.”[7] The IACB purchased six pieces of Nizhonie fabric in 1974.

255535 nizhoni mesa rain

Frank Austin (Bahah-Zhonie, Diné, b. 1938) and Keith Austin (Diné), Nizhonie Fabrics, Inc., Mesa Rain, 1974. Cortez, Colorado. Printed linen fabric, 280 x 114.5 cm. Indian Arts and Crafts Board Collection, Department of the Interior, at the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. NMAI 25/5535

This sampling of the fabrics in the IACB Headquarters Collection merely touches on the production of Native-designed fabric and clothing in the United States. These textiles illustrate, nevertheless, the innovation and imagination of Native designers who responded to the fashion of the day and infused local and national markets with Native-inspired designs from their cultures and surroundings.

—Anya Montiel

Anya Montiel (Tohono O'odham/Mexican) is a PhD candidate at Yale University and a curatorial research fellow at the National Museum of the American Indian. This post is part of a series Anya is writing on the Indian Arts and Crafts Board Headquarters Collection at the museum. 


[1] “Culture-infused Fabrics: Textile and Clothing Course Options at the IAIA,” Institute of American Indian Arts, accessed 16 November 2015, http://www.iaia.edu/museum/exhibitions/online/culture-infused-fabrics-textile-and-clothing-course-options-at-iaia/.

[2] On New's military service: Museum of Contemporary Arts, About the Galleries, web, accessed 23 November 2015, http://www.iaia.edu/museum/about/galleries/. The Kiva Studio operated until 1957. Rose Marie Cutropia, “Lloyd 'Kiva' New: Artist, Educator, and Visionary from the Lloyd H. New Papers in the Archives Collection at the Institute of American Indian Arts,” BA thesis, Institute of American Indian Arts, 2014, web, accessed 17 November 2015, http://www.academia.edu/7165470/Lloyd_Kiva_New_Touching_Native_Inspiration.

[3] “PEM Organizes First Large-scale Traveling Exhibitions of Contemporary Native American Fashion,” Peabody Essex Museum, 20 July 2015, web, accessed 16 November 2015, http://www.pem.org/press/press_release/312-pem_organizes_first_large-scale_traveling_exhibition_of_contemporary_native_american_fashion.

[4] “Announcement: Center for Arts of Indian America,” Vincent Price Papers (MSS 36905), Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington DC.

[5] The IACB purchased three fabric samples from New. Two of the fabric samples are in the IACB Headquarters Collection at the National Museum of the American Indian. The third one, “Sacred Cows,” seems to have been lost and was not transferred to the museum in 2000.

[6] Enid Nemy, "Tie-Dyed Fabrics from the Reservation," The New York Times, 22 February 1971, 20, accessed 23 November 2015, http://nyti.ms/1XajORa.

[7] “Nizhonie Fabrics, Inc.: An Indian Owned Enterprise” (pamphlet), IACB accession file for NMAI 25/5531, 25/5535, 25/5536, 25/5540, 25/5541, and 25/8918, National Museum of the American Indian, Washington DC.

Comments (0)

    » Post a Comment

November 26, 2015

Haudenosaunee Thanksgiving Address

The Ohenten Kariwatekwen is often called the Haudenosaunee Thanksgiving Address, but translated directly, the name means "Words Spoken Before All Others." The Haudenosaunee nations traditionally open all important gatherings with their version of the Ohenten Kariwatekwen and close with similar words.

The People
Today we have gathered and we see that the cycles of life continue. We have been given the duty to live in balance and harmony with each other and all living things. So now, we bring our minds together as one as we give greetings and thanks to each other as people. Now our minds are one. 

NMAI 21:9097
Beaded sculpture representing the Haudenosaunee Great Tree of Peace, 1900–20. Kahnawake Reserve, Québec; Canada. Velveteen, wool cloth, glass beads, wood, metal wire; height 37.5 cm. NMAI 21/9097
The Earth Mother
We are all thankful to our Mother, the Earth, for she gives us all that we need for life. She supports our feet as we walk about upon her. It gives us joy that she continues to care for us as she has from the beginning of time. To our mother, we send greetings and thanks. Now our minds are one.
 
The Waters
We give thanks to all the waters of the world for quenching our thirst and providing us with strength. Water is life. We know its power in many forms- waterfalls and rain, mists and streams, rivers and oceans. With one mind, we send greetings and thanks to the spirit of Water. Now our minds are one.
 
The Fish
We turn our minds to the all the Fish life in the water. They were instructed to cleanse and purify the water. They also give themselves to us as food. We are grateful that we can still find pure water. So, we turn now to the Fish and send our greetings and thanks. Now our minds are one.
 
The Plants
Now we turn toward the vast fields of Plant life. As far as the eye can see, the Plants grow, working many wonders. They sustain many life forms. With our minds gathered together, we give thanks and look forward to seeing Plant life for many generations to come. Now our minds are one.
 
The Food Plants
With one mind, we turn to honor and thank all the Food Plants we harvest from the garden. Since the beginning of time, the grains, vegetables, beans and berries have helped the people survive. Many other living things draw strength from them too. We gather all the Plant Foods together as one and send them a greeting of thanks. Now our minds are one.
 
The Medicine Herbs
Now we turn to all the Medicine herbs of the world. From the beginning they were instructed to take away sickness. They are always waiting and ready to heal us. We are happy there are still among us those special few who remember how to use these plants for healing. With one mind, we send greetings and thanks to the Medicines and to the keepers of the Medicines. Now our minds are one.
 
The Animals
We gather our minds together to send greetings and thanks to all the Animal life in the world. They have many things to teach us as people. We are honored by them when they give up their lives so we may use their bodies as food for our people. We see them near our homes and in the deep forests. We are glad they are still here and we hope that it will always be so. Now our minds are one.
 
The Trees
We now turn our thoughts to the Trees. The Earth has many families of Trees who have their own instructions and uses. Some provide us with shelter and shade, others with fruit, beauty and other useful things. Many people of the world use a Tree as a symbol of peace and strength. With one mind, we greet and thank the Tree life. Now our minds are one.
 
The Birds
We put our minds together as one and thank all the Birds who move and fly about over our heads. The Creator gave them beautiful songs. Each day they remind us to enjoy and appreciate life. The Eagle was chosen to be their leader. To all the Birds-from the smallest to the largest-we send our joyful greetings and thanks. Now our minds are one.
 
The Four Winds
We are all thankful to the powers we know as the Four Winds. We hear their voices in the moving air as they refresh us and purify the air we breathe. They help us to bring the change of seasons. From the four directions they come, bringing us messages and giving us strength. With one mind, we send our greetings and thanks to the Four Winds. Now our minds are one.
 
The Thunderers
Now we turn to the west where our grandfathers, the Thunder Beings, live. With lightning and thundering voices, they bring with them the water that renews life. We are thankful that they keep those evil things made by Owiseres underground. We bring our minds together as one to send greetings and thanks to our Grandfathers, the Thunderers. Now our minds are one.
 
The Sun
We now send greetings and thanks to our eldest Brother, the Sun. Each day without fail he travels the sky from east to west, bringing the light of a new day. He is the source of all the fires of life. With one mind, we send greetings and thanks to our Brother, the Sun. Now our minds are one.
 
Grandmother Moon
We put our minds together to give thanks to our oldest Grandmother, the Moon, who lights the night-time sky. She is the leader of woman all over the world, and she governs the movement of the ocean tides. By her changing face we measure time, and it is the Moon who watches over the arrival of children here on Earth. With one mind, we send greetings and thanks to our Grandmother, the Moon. Now our minds are one.
 
The Stars
We give thanks to the Stars who are spread across the sky like jewelry. We see them in the night, helping the Moon to light the darkness and bringing dew to the gardens and growing things. When we travel at night, they guide us home. With our minds gathered together as one, we send greetings and thanks to the Stars. Now our minds are one.
 
The Enlightened Teachers
We gather our minds to greet and thank the enlightened Teachers who have come to help throughout the ages. When we forget how to live in harmony, they remind us of the way we were instructed to live as people. With one mind, we send greetings and thanks to these caring teachers. Now our minds are one.
 
The Creator
Now we turn our thoughts to the creator, or Great Spirit, and send greetings and thanks for all the gifts of Creation. Everything we need to live a good life is here on this Mother Earth. For all the love that is still around us, we gather our minds together as one and send our choicest words of greetings and thanks to the Creator. Now our minds are one.
 
Closing Words
We have now arrived at the place where we end our words. Of all the things we have named, it was not our intention to leave anything out. If something was forgotten, we leave it to each individual to send such greetings and thanks in their own way. Now our minds are one.


This translation of the Mohawk version of the Haudenosaunee Thanksgiving Address was developed and published in 1993 by the Six Nations Indian Museum and the Tracking Project, and is provided by their courtesy. All rights reserved. Thanksgiving Address: Greetings to the Natural World: English version: John Stokes and Kanawahienton (David Benedict, Turtle Clan/Mohawk). Mohawk version: Rokwaho (Dan Thompson, Wolf Clan/Mohawk). Original inspiration: Tekaronianekon (Jake Swamp, Wolf Clan/Mohawk).

Comments (0)

    » Post a Comment

November 24, 2015

Meet Native America: Theresa Snow, Councillor for the Lower Similkameen Indian Band

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh 
 

Councillor Theresa Snow 1
Theresa Snow, newly elected member of the Lower Similkameen Indian Band Council.

Please introduce yourself with your name and title.

Hello, my name is Theresa Snow. I come from the Lower Similkameen Indian Band, one of the seven bands that make up the Okanagan Nation or Tribe.

Can you share your Native name and its English translation, or your nickname?

It's SXwUXwIkW. In English it is translated to Whirling Wind. As for a nickname, the world calls me Tree.

Where is your First Nation located?

We are ten minutes north of the Canadian–American border, in a small area in the Similkameen Valley. Our reserves are around Cawston, British Columbia.

Where are your people originally from?

We are have always been located in the interior Plateau area. The languages here are very similar to those in Washington, Idaho, and Montana. We have moved around in the same areas due to the seasons and the harvesting of foods.

What responsibilities do you have as a First Nations councillor?

As a council, we are elected by the people and therefore are to speak on behalf of the people as a whole, for the band. That means we deal with issues on a band level, with the band administrator and according to the concerns of our office-level functions. On a higher level, we work on behalf of the nation for the protection of our Title and Rights as the Natives of this land—on issues like land use, for example, for mining, and water use. We also speak on the provincial level on band fundings received from the Canadian government and how those are spent in our communities.

As a representative of a treaty nation, how do you interact with the Canadian government?

The Similkameen people have never signed a treaty for our land issues.

How did your life experience prepare you to lead?

On a personal note I would have to say I was raised with my grandparents. I spent a lot of time with my elders growing up. I was introduced to many influential people. I have had the honor to sit at the feet of many political leaders. In my later years I still spend time with my elders. My day job is home care. I take care of the elders who took care of us, and I feel that has given me a lot of insight into what still needs to be done.

Who inspired you as a mentor?

My uncle, Glen Douglas. He was a great man in politics, along with Tommy Gregory. These men together shared a lot of views of the history and the Title and Rights of our people. They sat at very important tables and meetings for our people.

How is your First Nation government of set up?

We have one chief and three council members.

Is there a functional traditional entity of leadership in addition to your modern government system?

Yes, we tie in our stories and lessons that have been passed down through the generations. They are used in meetings over agreements, to show our history and the history of our use of our lands—the territory the people have always lived on and around.

Theresa Snow 3

Councillor Snow on Similkameen lands in British Columbia

How often does your council meet?

The chief and council meet formally two times a month. We also meet on other issues throughout the month.

Approximately how large is your community? What are the criteria to become a citizen?

There are about 500 members. To become a member you have to prove your bloodline to our area. But also you can transfer into our band from your former band with the reason of a permanent relocation to our lands.

How many fluent language speakers are left on your reserve?

The last count was 28 fluent speakers, but we are working hard at educating more of our people to bring back the language. We already have in place classes funded by our council so that they are free for the members.

What economic enterprises does your First Nation own?

We are a small band, but currently we have Skul'qalt Forestry, a logging company, and a wind farm. We are looking into owning a gas bar.

What activities and events does your First Nation sponsor?

We host many kinds of community activities. For example, we have community breakfasts, elders' lunches, and a sobriety awareness week. We will be hosting a small community powwow this year.

What attractions are available for visitors to your First Nation’s land?

There are many things here of historical value to my people. We have the story landmarks of coyote, and there is also our famous Spotted Lake just down the road. We have a larger powwow Labor Day weekend hosted by our community.

What message would you like to share with young people within your reserve?

I would like to share the importance of family and standing together. Working together. We need to fix the broken family issues, so that our young people understand the value of their children and their parents in the same breath. We need to be strong and understand our own value—that we are worth the effort it takes to be good parents and children. We are raising our future and we are respecting the time put in by our elders.

Is there anything else you would like to add?

I have been honored by our people to sit in a leadership roll. I am looking forward to the challenges this will bring. I am hoping to make that difference. I hit the ground running. I am putting in my 110 percent. I hope that I can keep up this driving energy through my four-year position. The people have given me their faith, and I want to honor their voice.

Thank you.

Thank you.


Photographs by Billie Jean Gabriel Photography, Ashcroft, British Columbia, Canada. 


To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. 
Meet-native-america
From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All photos used with permission. 

Comments (0)

    » Post a Comment

November 10, 2015

The Indian Arts & Crafts Board: Otellie Loloma

Cast in bronze and resting on a marble base, Hopi-Hoya by Otellie Loloma (Hopi, 1921–93) won two awards at the Second Scottsdale National Indian Arts Exhibition in 1963—first prize in sculpture and wood carving and the Charles de Young Elkus Memorial Award for “the most outstanding piece of Indian arts and crafts which is new in material, technique, or design.”[1] 

261879 loloma hopi-hoya
Otellie Loloma (Hopi, 1921–93), Hopi–Hoya, 1963. Arizona. Cast bronze on a marble base; 47.7 x 11.7 x 10.1 cm. Purchased from the artist in 1963 by representatives of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board. Indian Arts and Crafts Board Collection, Department of the Interior, at the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. NMAI 26/1879

The juried competition received 372 entries that year, and the exhibition's chair, Paul Huldermann, noted that a number of artworks reflected new styles and techniques.[2] Hopi-Hoya, which was purchased directly from the artist by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, depicts a Hopi child with long hair leaning forward with arms crossed behind its back. Later that year, Loloma entered three bronze sculptures and one clay figure into the juried Indian Annual exhibition at the Philbrook Museum in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Muowi (Young Bride), Loloma's terra cotta of a Hopi bride draped in a cotton wedding robe, won first place in the sculpture category. The Philbrook purchased the work for its permanent collection.[3]

Otellie Pasiyava was born in 1921 at Second Mesa on the Hopi Reservation in Arizona. As a child she created “doll-like sculptures out of clay” while spending time with her grandmother.[4] In about 1942 she married the painter Charles Loloma (Hopi, 1921–91), who later became a celebrated jewelry artist. Otellie Loloma began formal training in ceramics in 1947 after she received a scholarship and Charles used the G.I. Bill to study at the new School for American Craftsmen, then part of Alfred University in western New York.[5] After finishing the two-year program, the couple returned to Arizona and in 1956 opened a pottery shop in Scottsdale where they marketed a line of ceramic dishes called Lolomaware.[6]

In 1959 Otellie Loloma became one of the first instructors for the Southwestern Indian Art Project at the University of Arizona at Tucson. That project led in 1962 to the establishment of the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA) in Santa Fe, where Loloma was again one of the first faculty members hired. She instructed students in ceramics and painting and occasionally taught dance with textile artist Josephine Myers Wapp (Comanche, 1912–2014).[7] 

Jacquie Stevens (Winnebago, b. 1949), a ceramicist who is well known for her large, asymmetrical vessels, calls Loloma a mentor. Stevens enrolled at the IAIA as a museum studies student until a ceramics course from Loloma changed the direction of her education. She reflects:

It must have been fate that made me take a class taught by Otellie. It was like I returned home; clay became my expression. Otellie taught me that each pot has its own life, personality, character, and form—and that is what set me free. Pottery is like people, every one is different and not perfect. I thought about this and decided it was an important idea. So I developed a new way, an unconventional way, of looking at form.[8]  

Two ceramic artworks by Loloma are represented in the Indian Arts and Crafts Board Headquarters Collection, both purchased in 1965.[9] Her figurative sculpture Desert Bird is both wheel-thrown and hand-built of stoneware. The sculpture is delightfully textural with marks from Loloma's fingers and palms forming the bird’s feathers and wings. She finished the piece by stringing clay and glass beads to its feathers. The other ceramic work, a cylindrical vase of glazed stoneware, was thrown on a wheel. Loloma then incised abstracted figures of people, plants, and rain clouds around the exterior.

259286 loloma—bird


Left: Otellie Loloma (Hopi, 1921–93), Desert Bird, 1965. Arizona. Stoneware; glass, shell, and stone beads; twine; 31.5 x 22.9 x 26.1 cm. NMAI 25/9286. Below: Otellie Loloma (Hopi, 1921–93), vase, 1964. Santa Fe, New Mexico. Incised, glazed stoneware, 16.9 x 15.7 cm. NMAI 25/9245.

259245 loloma

Both: Purchased in 1965 by representatives of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board  from the Department of the Interior Indian Craft Shop, Washington, D.C. Indian Arts and Crafts Board Collection, Department of the Interior, at the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution.


While she acknowledged that Hopi cosmology influenced her work, Loloma revealed that “no one Hopi [person] would probably recognize that they are Hopi figures because I have done it all from my own imagination.”[10] Hopi stories provided inspiration for her work but never sources for duplication. Loloma felt at ease using several ceramic techniques and materials. During a 1968 exhibition of her work in Washington, D.C., actor and art collector Vincent Price noted that Loloma created “beautifully realized sculptures [that reflect] a great awareness of the techniques at her disposal today.”[11] 

A member of the IAIA faculty until her retirement in 1988, Loloma taught generations of Native American artists. Students of Loloma's whose work can be seen in the collections of the National Museum of the American Indian include Peter B. Jones (Onondaga/Seneca, b. 1947), Dan Namingha (Hopi–Tewa, b. 1950), and Robert Tenorio (Santo Domingo, b. 1950). 

After her passing, fellow artist and IAIA instructor James McGrath dedicated a poem to Loloma, one verse of which reads,

I think of her pots,
    of the fullness inside 
    where treasures are held, 
    secure and loved in their silence.[12]

—Anya Montiel

Anya Montiel (Tohono O'odham/Mexican) is a PhD candidate at Yale University and a curatorial research fellow at the National Museum of the American Indian. This post is part of a series Anya is writing on the Indian Arts and Crafts Board Headquarters Collection at the museum. 


[1] “Prizes and Awards,” Second Scottsdale National Indian Arts Exhibition (Scottsdale AZ: Executive House, 1963), 3. The memorial award is named for Charles de Young Elkus (1881–1963), a San Francisco lawyer who was a Native rights advocate and a collector of Native arts.

[2] Ibid, 2.

[3] Christina Burke, curator of Native American and non-Western art, Philbrook Museum of Art, email conversation with Anya Montiel, 5 November 2015.

[4] Jaune Quick-to-See Smith, “Women of Cedar, Sweetgrass, and Sage,” Women’s Studies Quarterly 15, no. 1/2 (Spring–Summer 1987), 41.

[5] Later Otellie Loloma also attended Northern Arizona University and the College of Santa Fe.

[6] The couple divorced in 1965.

[7] Loloma and Wapp performed at the White House and at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City with students from the IAIA.

[8] Susan Peterson, “The Legacy of Generations: Pottery by Contemporary American Indian Women,” in Women Artists of the American West, Susan R. Ressler ed. (Jefferson NC: McFarland & Company, 2003), 110.

[9] The National Museum of the American Indian has another work by Loloma in the collection, a watercolor painting that was donated by Charles and Ruth Elkus in the 1950s.

[10] Smith, 41.

[11] Vincent Price, “Introduction,” Three from Santa Fe (Washington DC: Center for Arts of Indian America, 1968).

[12] James McGrath, “A Song for Otellie,” At the Edgelessness of Light: Poems (Santa Fe NM: Sunstone Press, 2005), 38.

Comments (0)

    » Post a Comment