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October 31, 2014

This Day in the Maya Calendar: November 2014

Cholq'ij, the Maya sacred ceremonial calendar of 260 days—a cycle of 20 Day deities and 13 numbers—is the basis of the Maya spirituality that survives to this time, practiced daily among millions of Maya people, in thousands of communities. The interpretation of the days can vary from one Maya people to another. The interpretations given here are based on sustained conversations and participation over three decades with Maya Q'eqchi calendar priest Roderico Teni and daykeeping families in the area of Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, by Jose Barreiro (Taíno), head of NMAI’s Office of Latin America, and his wife, Katsi Cook (Mohawk). Glyphs representing the Day lords appear throughout Maya Country; these were painted by Esteban Pop Caal (Q'eqchi Maya) of Cobán.

For more background to this series, please see Jose's introduction, "Living in the Practice." For further insight into the role of the Day lords in everyday life, please see the Maya Journal. For the complete year so far, please see the Maya calendar archive.

Illustrations: Esteban Pop Caal (Q'eqchi Maya), calendar glyphs. Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala; 2003. Paint on wood. Purchased from the artist. 26/2685. Photos by Ernest Amoroso, NMAI 

11 Toj  |  Sunday, November 30, 2014

262685_TojCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 11 Toj. Toj is the mystic Fish—the tear of jade and drops of rain, water falling; 11 is high turbulence. Toj is a day of making even, a good day to pay spiritual and financial debts and to collect what you are owed. This is a day of evenness for a family, a good day for parents to pay the family's debt to el Mundo, good for the oldest son to appreciate the father and the father to appreciate the mountain. Illness can be deviated from the family by making a ceremonial offering on this day. —Jose Barreiro 

10 Anil  |  Saturday, November 29, 2014

262685_AnilCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 10 Anil. Anil is the fertility in the seed, Anil is Rabbit; 10 is a high balance. Anil is red, white, yellow, black—the four colors of corn, the seed of life that is the unity of the world. Anil is renewal after death, regeneration of the earth. Anil people are four-directions people and can be good travelers. This is a day of coming back, a day to generate and appreciate abundance, a day of declaring love to create a new relationship, a day to announce the wish to do business, a day of finding lost things, a day to ask for help in overcoming shyness. —J. B. 

9 Kiej  |  Friday, November 28, 2014 

262685_Kiej

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 9 Kiej. Kiej is the Deer; 9 is a triple rotor. Kiej is the four directions, four hoofs striking the earth at once, the quaternity of the cosmos linked to prayer, highest aviso to el Mundo—the living world. Kiej is the staff of authority, keen energy of a chief to detect danger, perception of the leader buck, his horns. Kiej is a good day to pray for mental and physical agility, a day of agile travelers and good communicators. It is a day also to ask for clarity before gossip and ill intentions. A major gift of nature, Kiej holds indefatigable energy. He is one of the four main carriers of time. —J. B. 

8 Kame  |  Thursday, November 27, 2014 

262685_KameCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 8 Kame. Kame is the Owl and the recognition of death; 8 is a double balance. A day that recalls the night, tranquility, and silence, Kame is a good day to ask for the ancient and recent ancestors who have gone on, to thank them, and to remember them with purpose. This is an appropriate day to extend reconciliation, to feel and give forgiveness, to develop patience, to invoke against mortal illnesses, to access superior knowledge. Without fear, it is a good day to approach the spiritual dimension, "the enchantment." —J. B. 

7 Kan  |  Wednesday, November 26, 2014 

262685_KanCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 7 Kan. Kan is the Snake; 7 is a pivotal number. Kan is the ancient origin—Gucumatz, the Plumed Serpent. This is a day of strict and impartial justice, a day of definition and maturity, and a good day to offer respect and to thank the corn. On Kan, matters of justice, judges, and courts can be cleared up. This is a good day to pray that truth and justice are manifest in the Heart of Sky, Heart of Earth; a good day to put aside jealousies and request equilibrium in life and in the family. It is a day to ask for physical strength and patience, to contemplate our spiritual evolution, and to rekindle the internal fire. —J. B. 

6 Kat  |  Tuesday, November 25, 2014

262685_KatCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 6 Kat. Kat is Spider, also Web and Fire; 6 is a middle, even number. On Kat the unity of the people is paramount, and knowledge is deepened. Kat is the network of the sacred heart, the family hearth. Today is a good day to pray for your family fireplace, the spirit of the fire that belongs in the home, the one that calls other spirits to ceremony and speaks for them. Kat is the net that hauls in the fish and the net that holds the ears of corn, a day that can bring the fruition of things and the untangling of complications. This is a good day to help free prisoners from captivity, to request vigor and power for the weak. —J. B. 

5 Aqbal  |  Monday, November 24, 2014

262685_AqbalCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 5 Aqbal. Aqbal is the Dawn, also Bat; 5 is one hand. Aqbal is clarity, the separation of darkness and light as the Sun disperses the fog and obscurity of night. This is a good day to ask for a peaceful and happy daybreak, a day to find hidden and lost things, a day to wash away tears of sadness. On Aqbal, the sacred fire is recognized and appreciated. Aqbal is a good day to clean the ashes (renew the heart) of a fireplace and to present a new baby to el Mundo. A potential bride or groom can be revealed on this day. Harvesting of corn can begin on this day. People born on Aqbal relate in the present and are a special link between past and future. They are early risers, good workers, tranquil and kind, strong before an enemy, good researchers and finders of hidden things, often called "the candle of the home." —J. B. 

4 Iq  |  Sunday, November 23, 2014

262685_IqCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 4 Iq. Iq is Wind, also Moon; 4 is a balance. Wind is powerful, violent, driven of itself, identity. A day of strong emotion, Iq is also a healing day. Good wind is nutritional for human minds; it is the mystic breath and vital inspiration of nature. On Iq, a breeze or wind that splits against your face is a blessing and a cleansing to purge your head and body of illness. Respiratory ills are prayed over on this day. This is a good day to appreciate all of Creation. The Day lord Iq is one of the four Yearbearers, or mams, a creator who helped finish the world and put breath (essence) in human beings. People born on Iq are inclined toward spiritual ways and can impulsively tap into cosmic sources. —J. B.

3 Imox  |  Saturday, November 22, 2014

262685_ImoxCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 3 Imox. Imox is Lizard; 3 is a rotor. Imox is the very force of gravity and a good day to pray for creativity and for rain. Imox can open el Mundo to receive cosmic messages. Known as a "crazy" day, Imox requires much concentration and control. A day of high male intelligence, also impatience and agitation, Imox can be difficult. Grounded on its left side, left arm, this day is easily unbalanced and in need of clasping by left and right hands. Imox can be good if held in the balance of the Heart of Sky and Heart of Earth; unattended, Imox can manifest imbalance, mental nervousness, and even death. People born on Imox are open and sincere, but indecisive—in need of ceremony to set the positive to override the negative. —J. B. 

2 Ajpu  |  Friday, November 21, 2014

262685_AjpuCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 2 Ajpu. Ajpu is Caracol, Spiral Shell; 2 is duality. Ajpu is the Sun, captain of time, a day of personal strength and for good to triumph over evil. Ajpu, who cares for boys and guides men, begins the men's cycle. This is a day to connect with the ancestors, who can reward and punish. Death is reachable and amenable; spirits can ask permission to enter el Mundo, the living world. Day of the warrior and blowgun hunter (cerbatanero), Ajpu is the strong blow of the dart that hits its target, a good day to pray for stealth or for a break in enemy lines. Ajpu is also a good day to start building on a house, a good day to make prayers for women and for success in lactation. —J. B. 

1 Kawoq  |  Thursday, November 20, 2014 

262685_Kawoq

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 1 Kawoq. Kawoq is Turtle, also Sky Serpent; 1 is the beginning. Kawoq is a high woman day—a day of duality in all of nature and a guardian of contentment. It is the day of woman and man, lightning and thunder, fecundity and imagination; a day of midwives; a day of prayer for unity within the home, strength within the family, renewed strength for convalescents, and the smoothing of all irritation. This is a good day to turn bad medicine back on itself. Kawoq attends to young women in pregnancy, labor, and delivery, and to full realization for all women; it is a day of their sash. Kawoq is also a good day to commemorate the Staff of Authority, a good day for the men of a family and community to pray for the coffers (good fortune) of the women and for the protection of the home. Good midwives, writers, and architects are born on this day. —J. B. 


13 Tijax  |  Wednesday, November 19, 2014

262685_TijaxCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 13 Tijax. Tijax is Fish, also Obsidian; 13 is the highest turbulence. Tijax is a day of doctors, good to pray for surgeons and all medical practitioners; a day of sacrifice and liberation from suffering; a day of sharp, cutting objects, of knives and scalpels and scissors. Tijax is a safeguard for domestic animals against predators, a good day to pray for all animals that are sacrificed, both in ceremony and in everyday life. Tijax is a good day to use metal (a machete, scissors) to "open the sky"—to solicit rain, solicit life, split black clouds. Gossip, calumny, and sorcery, on money and sexual matters, can be overcome on this day; on a high-number day, disputes can turn public and become debilitating. Tijax is a good day for seasoned masters to fortify daykeeping trainees against ridicule by envious countrymen or evangelicos. It is not a good day to plant. —J. B. 

12 Noj  |  Tuesday, November 18, 2014

262685_NojCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 12 Noj. Noj is Woodpecker; 12 is the highest balance. Noj is a woman's highest intelligence. Maya knowledge and wisdom live in this day—good science to support positive deeds, good projects, good business, a good home. On Noj good ideas are available through the intelligence connected to the movement of the earth. Boys born on this day have important female qualities and can be attentive to the knowledge of nature, which rules all. Girls born on this day can be clear leaders. This is a good day to hear advice and make decisions, a good day to feed the mind, recognize curiosity, and strengthen memory. Noj is one of the four Yearbearers. —J. B. 

11 Ajmac  |  Monday, November 17, 2014

262685_AjmacCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 11 Ajmac. Ajmac is Bee, also Vulture; 11 is high turbulence. On Ajmac ancestor spirits can detect and smooth the thread of time in our lives. Prudence, intelligence, ancient wisdom are in this day. This is a day to plead forgiveness for serious faults and to be judged. It is a day that demands moral rectitude, respect, and sincere analysis. On this day our faults (stains) must be faced and paid for; humble request for pity is encouraged. Ajmac is a propitious day for the women of a household to make peace with one another after conflict, to apologize for sharp words; it is a good day to pray for smooth relationships and the renewal of agreements among women. Hard luck can face those born on Ajmac. —J. B. 

10 Tz'ikin  |  Sunday, November 16, 2014

262685_Tz'ikinCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 10 Tz'ikin. Tz'ikin is Bird, best represented by the Hummingbird, also the Quetzal and Eagle; 10 is a high balance. Tz'ikin carries messages between the Heart of Earth and Heart of Sky. Cold, heat, light, air, cloud are its elements. Love, intuition, precognition are strong in those born on this day. Tz'ikin is a good day for humans to follow birds to the corn—to find good material luck. This is a good day to ask for revelation and intelligence, for vision, and for abundance; a good day to ask for collaboration in projects or for personal freedom. On this day, women have the privilege to ask for their husbands and sons to triple the family money. —J. B. 

9 I'x  |  Saturday, November 15, 2014 

262685_I'x

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 9 I'x. I'x is Jaguar; 9 is a triple rotor. I'x is woman's energy day. This is a day to connect with your own land and to pray for its original owners; to pray for and appreciate your house; to pray for the finances to buy and sustain land; to ask for fertility in humans and animals; to request vigor and strength for reproductive organs, particularly female. I'x is a good day to pray to the mountains in favor of the land. It is a good day for a woman to request strength in her husband's commitment to matrimonial stability. People born on I'x have a close relationship to el Mundo and receive good access to precious metals. I'x is a good day for solitude and meditation. —J. B.

8 Aj  |  Friday, November 14, 2014 

262685_AjCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 8 Aj. Aj is Cane Reed; 8 is a double balance. Aj begins the women's cycle, sentiments of family and home, the spinal cord. Aj is life and receives life. This is a day of resurgence and renewal, as in the reed and the corn; a day for the triumph of good over evil, life over death; a day of happiness, renewal of food, money, the heart of life. People born on this day renew their communities; they are sickly as children and sturdy as adults; they are especially lucky; they are good awakeners of their families and communities; they make good midwives. Aj is a good day to ask for clarity of destiny, a good day to pray for the protection of your life and of the newborn, a good day to pray for twins, a good day to pray for humanity. —J. B. 

7 Eh  |  Thursday, November 13, 2014

262685_Eh

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 7 Eh. Eh is Bobcat, also the Path and the Tooth; 7 is a pivotal number. Eh can orient individuals, groups, or communities to their destiny. Eh is the day to ask for protection from dangers and obstructions during travels—specifically, that on your road the attention of thieves or highway police or border inspectors will be deviated from your trajectory. Solitude is in Eh, light rain, kindness, alignment. People born on this day can be good counselors, spiritual guides with the gift of prayer to Ajaw (Creator) on the destiny of things. Also, good dentists are born on this day. Eh is one of the four pillars of the 20 days, a Yearbearer—a strong, especially sacred day. A prayer started in Batz can be carried by Eh through the full cycle of 20 days. —J. B. 

6 Batz  |  Wednesday, November 12, 2014

262685_BatzCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 6 Batz. Batz is Monkey; 6 is a middle, even number. Monkey braid, monkey fingers, monkey tail, Batz is the grasp of the monkey's hand so tight and braided the fist will not let go, even in death. Batz is a good day for beginnings, and for some Maya daykeepers, Batz begins the 20-day calendar. Batz is unity, a good day to tie things together, a good day for a marriage or to start a construction, a good day for initiation into the ways. Batz is the thread of time that rolls out from under the earth, weaving life until cut, weaving time into history. People born on Batz are calm and self-confident; they make good spiritual guides and leaders, and goodhearted architects. —J. B.

5 Tzi  |  Tuesday, November 11, 2014

6a01156f5f4ba1970b019b04c65ab2970d-200wiCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 5 Tzi. Tzi is the Canine, the guardian; 5 is one hand. Dog, Wolf, Coyote, Tzi can be snarly, terrifying the unprepared with his bark and his bite. Tzi people are zealous to guard the sacredness of ceremony, to identify and punish "intruders," those not disciplined to participate. Benevolent to friends and fierce to enemies, Tzi is steady to reward or punish. Tzi will punish those who disrespect the Days and the spirit of the family. This is a good day to ask for mystic insight for leaders so that they can seek and discover hidden things, so that they can be just. Tzi has strong sexual energy, hard to restrain. When this energy is defined, people born on Tzi make loyal friends, husbands, and wives. —J. B. 

4 Toj  |  Monday, November 10, 2014

262685_TojCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 4 Toj. Toj is the mystic Fish—the tear of jade and drops of rain, water falling; 4 is a balance. Toj is a day of making even, a good day to pay spiritual and financial debts and to collect what you are owed. This is a day of evenness for a family, a good day for parents to pay the family's debt to el Mundo, good for the oldest son to appreciate the father and the father to appreciate the mountain. Illness can be deviated from the family by making a ceremonial offering on this day. —J. B. 

3 Anil  |  Sunday, November 9, 2014

262685_AnilCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 3 Anil. Anil is the fertility in the seed, Anil is Rabbit; 3 is a rotor. Anil is red, white, yellow, black—the four colors of corn, the seed of life that is the unity of the world. Anil is renewal after death, regeneration of the earth. Anil people are four-directions people and can be good travelers. This is a day of coming back, a day to generate and appreciate abundance, a day of declaring love to create a new relationship, a day to announce the wish to do business, a day of finding lost things, a day to ask for help in overcoming shyness. —J. B. 

2 Kiej  |  Saturday, November 8, 2014 

262685_Kiej

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 2 Kiej. Kiej is the Deer; 2 is duality. Kiej is the four directions, four hoofs striking the earth at once, the quaternity of the cosmos linked to prayer, highest aviso to el Mundo—the living world. Kiej is the staff of authority, keen energy of a chief to detect danger, perception of the leader buck, his horns. Kiej is a good day to pray for mental and physical agility, a day of agile travelers and good communicators. It is a day also to ask for clarity before gossip and ill intentions. A major gift of nature, Kiej holds indefatigable energy. He is one of the four main carriers of time. —J. B. 

1 Kame  |  Friday, November 7, 2014 

262685_KameCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 1 Kame. Kame is the Owl and the recognition of death; 1 is the beginning. A day that recalls the night, tranquility, and silence, Kame is a good day to ask for the ancient and recent ancestors who have gone on, to thank them, and to remember them with purpose. This is an appropriate day to extend reconciliation, to feel and give forgiveness, to develop patience, to invoke against mortal illnesses, to access superior knowledge. Without fear, it is a good day to approach the spiritual dimension, "the enchantment." —J. B. 

13 Kan  |  Thursday, November 6, 2014 

262685_KanCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 13 Kan. Kan is the Snake; 13 is the highest turbulence. Kan is the ancient origin—Gucumatz, the Plumed Serpent. This is a day of strict and impartial justice, a day of definition and maturity, and a good day to offer respect and to thank the corn. On Kan, matters of justice, judges, and courts can be cleared up. This is a good day to pray that truth and justice are manifest in the Heart of Sky, Heart of Earth; a good day to put aside jealousies and request equilibrium in life and in the family. It is a day to ask for physical strength and patience, to contemplate our spiritual evolution, and to rekindle the internal fire. —J. B. 

12 Kat  |  Wednesday, November 5, 2014

262685_KatCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 12 Kat. Kat is Spider, also Web and Fire; 12 is the highest balance. On Kat the unity of the people is paramount, and knowledge is deepened. Kat is the network of the sacred heart, the family hearth. Today is a good day to pray for your family fireplace, the spirit of the fire that belongs in the home, the one that calls other spirits to ceremony and speaks for them. Kat is the net that hauls in the fish and the net that holds the ears of corn, a day that can bring the fruition of things and the untangling of complications. This is a good day to help free prisoners from captivity, to request vigor and power for the weak. —J. B. 

11 Aqbal  |  Tuesday, November 4, 2014

262685_AqbalCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 11 Aqbal. Aqbal is the Dawn, also Bat; 11 is high turbulence. Aqbal is clarity, the separation of darkness and light as the Sun disperses the fog and obscurity of night. This is a good day to ask for a peaceful and happy daybreak, a day to find hidden and lost things, a day to wash away tears of sadness. On Aqbal, the sacred fire is recognized and appreciated. Aqbal is a good day to clean the ashes (renew the heart) of a fireplace and to present a new baby to el Mundo. A potential bride or groom can be revealed on this day. Harvesting of corn can begin on this day. People born on Aqbal relate in the present and are a special link between past and future. They are early risers, good workers, tranquil and kind, strong before an enemy, good researchers and finders of hidden things, often called "the candle of the home." —J. B. 

10 Iq  |  Monday, November 3, 2014

262685_IqCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 10 Iq. Iq is Wind, also Moon; 10 is a high balance. Wind is powerful, violent, driven of itself, identity. A day of strong emotion, Iq is also a healing day. Good wind is nutritional for human minds; it is the mystic breath and vital inspiration of nature. On Iq, a breeze or wind that splits against your face is a blessing and a cleansing to purge your head and body of illness. Respiratory ills are prayed over on this day. This is a good day to appreciate all of Creation. The Day lord Iq is one of the four Yearbearers, or mams, a creator who helped finish the world and put breath (essence) in human beings. People born on Iq are inclined toward spiritual ways and can impulsively tap into cosmic sources. —J. B. 

9  Imox  |  Sunday, November 2, 2014

262685_ImoxCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 9 Imox. Imox is Lizard; 9 is a triple rotor. Imox is the very force of gravity and a good day to pray for creativity and for rain. Imox can open el Mundo to receive cosmic messages. Known as a "crazy" day, Imox requires much concentration and control. A day of high male intelligence, also impatience and agitation, Imox can be difficult. Grounded on its left side, left arm, this day is easily unbalanced and in need of clasping by left and right hands. Imox can be good if held in the balance of the Heart of Sky and Heart of Earth; unattended, Imox can manifest imbalance, mental nervousness, and even death. People born on Imox are open and sincere, but indecisive—in need of ceremony to set the positive to override the negative. —J. B. 

8 Ajpu  |  Saturday, November 1, 2014

262685_AjpuCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 8 Ajpu. Ajpu is Caracol, Spiral Shell; 8 is a double balance. Ajpu is the Sun, captain of time, a day of personal strength and for good to triumph over evil. Ajpu, who cares for boys and guides men, begins the men's cycle. This is a day to connect with the ancestors, who can reward and punish. Death is reachable and amenable; spirits can ask permission to enter el Mundo, the living world. Day of the warrior and blowgun hunter (cerbatanero), Ajpu is the strong blow of the dart that hits its target, a good day to pray for stealth or for a break in enemy lines. Ajpu is also a good day to start building on a house, a good day to make prayers for women and for success in lactation. —J. B. 

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Meet Native America: William H. Daisey, Chief, Nanticoke Indian Tribe

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh 


Please introduce yourself with your name and title. 

I'm William H. Daisey, and my title is chief of the Nanticoke Indian Tribe

Can you share your name in your language, or tell us what it means? 

It's Thunder Eagle. 

Chief William H. Daisey
Chief William H. Daisey, Nanticoke Indian Tribe. Photo courtesy of the Nanticoke Indian Tribe. 

Where is your tribe located? 

Our community is centered in Millsboro, Delaware, where the Indian River widens into Indian River Bay.

Where was your Native nation originally from? 

We're from the Eastern Shore of Chesapeake Bay in what is now Maryland. 

What is a significant point in history from your people that you would like to share? 

In 1881 the Nanticoke community was recognized by the state of Delaware. The Nanticoke Indian Association received a charter of incorporation from Delaware in 1922.

How is your tribal government set up? 

We have a chief, assistant chief, and five councilpersons

Is there a functional, traditional entity of leadership in addition to your modern government system?

No. 

How often are elected leaders chosen?

We hold elections every two years.

How often does your Tribal Council meet?

We meet once a month and hold special council meetings as needed.

How did your life experience prepare you to lead your tribe?

I was taught to love and respect the Creator, the land, and my fellow man. I attended many gathering and ceremonies with my elders, which gave me the opportunity to have a greater understanding of our tribe's heritage, culture and the hardships people endured. I am a journeyman in over eight different trades and have over 35 years of supervisory experience acquired in private industry and the public school system. I served on the council for several years and as assistant chief before I was elected as chief.

Nanticoke Powwow 2014
Chief Daisey at the 37th annual Nanticoke Indian Powwow in September 2014. Photo by Barbara Walls, courtesy of the Nanticoke Indian Tribe.

What responsibilities do you have as a tribal leader?

I have the responsibility to be a leader and move our tribe forward, to work with people in mutual respect toward obtaining some of the goals we want to reach. To maintain, protect, and preserve our culture and heritage. To maintain a good relationship with our sister tribes.

Who inspired you as a mentor?

My father, mother, uncle, and the many Native Americans leaders who struggled and sometimes died for us.

Are you a descendant of a historical leader? If so, who?

Yes, Dixon Coursey and John Coursey. Both were tribal leaders of the Nanticoke Tribe in Maryland before the migration to Delaware and the dispersal to the rest of the nation. 

Approximately how many members are in your tribe?

Approximately 3000.

What are the criteria to become a member of your tribe?

You have to be no further removed from a Nanticoke member than father/mother, grandfather/grandmother, brother/sister, son/daughter or uncle/aunt who is a brother or sister to the applicant's father or mother, or great uncle/great aunt who is a brother or sister to the applicant's grandfather or grandmother.

Is your language still spoken on your homelands? If so, what percentage of your people would you estimate are fluent speakers?

The last person to speak the Nanticoke language fluently was Lydia Clark, who died in 1856. 

What annual events does the Nanticoke Tribe sponsor?

We have a powwow around Labor Day; a five-kilometer Unity Run, which is open to walkers, too; and a National Native American Heritage Day Celebration, which this year will be on Saturday, November 8.

Nanticoke Indian Museum
The Nanticoke Indian Museum in Millsboro, Delaware. A National Historic Landmark, the building originally housed the Harmon School for Nanticoke Children, founded in 1921. Photo reprinted under Creative Commons copyright.

What attractions are available for visitors on your land?  

We have the Nanticoke Indian Museum, which is housed in a former Nanticoke schoolhouse. This is the only Native American museum in Delaware, and it is listed by the federal government as a National Historic Landmark. Visitors can get a real taste of village life as they view the artifacts, some dating back to 8,000 B.C. There is also a stage with animals and skins that were indigenous to this area.

How does your tribe deal with the United States as a sovereign nation?

We are a state-recognized tribe, so we don't have the same sovereignty as federally recognized tribes. 

What message would you like to share with the youth of the Nanticoke Indian Tribe?

It is important to spend time learning and embracing our culture, history, traditions, and heritage. If you fail to assume that responsibility, you will be unable to protect and preserve our heritage, and it will be lost in the sands of time. 

Is there anything else you would like to add?

Thanks for the opportunity! 

Thank you. 


To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. 
Meet-native-america
From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All photos used with permission. 

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October 27, 2014

Glittering World: Case (Almost) Closed . . . .

By Joshua Stevens

The National Museum of the American Indian in New York is abuzz as the debut of Glittering World: Navajo Jewelry of the Yazzie Family comes closer. A little less than three weeks before the exhibition opens to the public November 13, people behind the scenes are putting the final elements in place, bringing life to the sketches, blueprints, and mock-ups that designers worked tirelessly to perfect.

A visit to the museum’s East Gallery right now gives a vivid sense of just how stunning the exhibition will be. Vibrant colors of crimson and turquoise give a new personality to the space, almost as if visitors will walk into a life-sized piece of Navajo jewelry. It is also apparent that much more remains to be done as prep work continues in every corner of the gallery.

Standing out among all the work in progress is casework that will eventually hold hundreds of pieces of jewelry made by the Yazzies. It’s easy to be amazed by how much planning it takes for every single case. Each case is inscribed with numbers that categorize it and map what it will contain. The exhibition team—led by Peter Brill, assistant director for exhibitions and programs at the museum in New York—allowed a sneak peek at the construction of the exhibition environment. A few snapshots give a sense of things to come.

Encasements Waiting Encasement Application Wall Section

Left: Display cases sit below panels where they will eventually be hung. Top right: Peter Brill shows how a case front will be fitted to one of the wall panels. Above: Within the recesses of a panel, numbers encode a case's location and contents. 

LYazzieRingPanel
RetailCase LightingExample

Top left: This unfinished panel will hold several of Lee Yazzie’s best-known expertly designed rings. Above: Cases have been designed to strike the perfect balance of controlled lighting and ambient light, bringing out the brilliance of the jewelry in the exhibition. Right: This case will showcase pieces in the Glittering World Gallery Store, where visitors will have the opportunity to purchase unique jewelry inspired by Navajo designs, as well as work by fine jewelers from other Native nations.


Glittering World
opens Thursday, November 13, at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York, and will run until January 2016. The NMAI blog will continue to post exclusive behind-the-scenes content as the opening nears. You can also view the exhibition trailer and join the conversation with the museum on Facebook and Twitter, #GlitteringWorld. Let us know if there’s something you want to know! 

Photos by Joshua Stevens, NMAI.

Joshua Stevens is the Public Affairs specialist at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York.

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October 24, 2014

Meet Native America: Daniel S. Collins Sr., Chairman, Shinnecock Indian Nation Council of Trustees

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh 


Please introduce yourself with your name and title. 

Akwe, my name is Daniel S. Collins Sr., and I am the chairman of the Shinnecock Indian Nation Council of Trustees.  

Chairman Collins
Daniel S. Collins Sr., chairman of the Shinnecock Indian Nation Council of Trustees. Photo by Beverly Jensen, courtesy of the Shinnecock Indian Nation.

Can you share with us your Shinnecock name? 

My mother gave me the name Eagle Feather after birth. 

Where is your community located?

The Shinnecock Indian Reservation is adjacent to the town of Southampton, on Long Island in New York. 

Where are the Shinnecock people originally from? 

The Shinnecock are referred to as the People of the Stony Shores. I believe that the air, land, and sea represent all that our bodies are made of. The air gives life, the land is a solid and forms the body, and water is the cycling process that sustains the body. All of these elements come together along the shore.

In a vision I had back sometime, I saw the waves rolling in onto the stony shores of Shinnecock. Each time the waves would break and begin to roll back out, a man and woman would evolve from the waves onto the shore. When the waves stopped, the shores were outlined as far as the eye could see east to west with beautiful brown-skinned human beings, known today as the Shinnecock, the People of the Stony Shores. Our people were put here by the Creator and have lived and survived here since time immemorial. 

What is a significant point in history from your tribe that you would like to share? 

First contact with early settlers sailing in to Conscious Point in 1640. The loss of ten Shinnecock men in the shipwreck of the Circassian in 1876. Most recently, I would have to say, our receiving federal recognition as the 565th Indian Nation, on October 1, 2010. These are just a few historical points, which outline how we have been here and our current-day status. 

How is your tribal government set up? 

Prior to December 2013, the government structure of the Shinnecock Nation consisted of a three-man Board of Trustees. The chairman was decided based upon who received the most votes. In December of 2013, we enacted the ratified Constitution of the Nation and a new Council of Trustees was elected consisting of a seven council members: chairman, vice chairman, treasurer, council secretary, General Council secretary, sachem (male elder), and sunksqua (female elder). The new Council of Trustees afforded the Shinnecock Nation the opportunity to elect two female councilors to serve for the first time in Shinnecock history. 


Shinnecock Nation Council of Trustees 2014
The Shinnecock Indian Nation Council of Trustees, 2014. Left to right, back row: D. Taobi Silva, treasurer; Eugene Cuffee II, sachem; Bradden Smith Sr., vice chairman; Daniel S. Collins Sr., chairman, and Bryan Polite, Council of Trustees secretary. Front row: Nichol Dennis-Banks, General Council secretary; and Lucille Bosley, sunksqua. Photo by Beverly Jensen, courtesy of the Shinnecock Indian Nation.


Is there a functional, traditional entity of leadership in addition to your modern government system?
 

The sachem and sunksqua are members of the Council of Elders and provide spiritual guidance and act as peacekeepers. 

How often are elected leaders chosen? 

The last election was held in December. Until then, since 1792 the Shinnecock Nation held trustees elections every April on the first Tuesday. We are currently proposing staggered terms to ensure forward progress of the nation’s business endeavors with the newly elected and remaining trustees each year. 

How often does your tribal council meet? 

The Council of Trustees meets weekly. There is also a monthly meeting between the Council of Trustees and the General Council, which consist of all the enrolled community members. This is done to ensure community involvement and transparency. 

What responsibilities do you have as a Shinnecock leader? 

As a tribal leader, my role is to care for, defend, and protect the well being and safety of all tribal members, as well as all tribal property and assets. I'm also charged with maintaining current programs and resources while seeking additional resources that would improve upon the current process of working towards tribal self-sufficiency with no negative impact to our sovereignty. Public safety and cultural awareness are my major interests. 

How did your life experience prepare you to lead your nation? 

First and foremost, the pride of being Shinnecock has always been the strength that guided me through all I have endured growing up until the present. Having the opportunity to move around the world in my younger days allowed for me to become very diverse and open-minded. My career in the military and in both municipal and tribal law enforcement exposed me to many situations involving people from many different backgrounds, cultures, and beliefs. Having held multiple leadership roles and positions throughout my entire career has grounded and prepared me well for the position to which I have been elected. 

Who inspired you as a mentor? 

I have been afforded the opportunity to work with many great leaders and mentor figures. My grandfather, Chief Thunderbird, was a great man. He loved his people and culture. He instilled the pride of Shinnecock in all of his family and tribal members. He was a forgiving man and a great educator. He maintained and expressed his passion and pride of Shinnecock through his role as ceremonial chief each year of his adult life at our annual powwow. He is my inspirational and honorable mentor. 

Are you a descendant of a historical leader? 

How do you define a historic leader—one that makes the history books? The fact that the Shinnecock people have been here on our traditional lands since time immemorial speaks to our all being descendants of great leaders. I will take this opportunity to honor my father, Avery Dennis Sr., Chief Eagle Eye, for his twenty years of service as a former tribal trustee, and to honor all who served and stood for our great nation. 

Approximately how many members are in your community? 

Total membership of the Shinnecock Indian Nation is approximately 1,600 enrolled members. 

What are the criteria to become a member? 

Criteria for enrollment are outlined in our nation’s Enrollment Ordinance adopted by the General Council, which is in line with the federal recognition process. 

Is your language still spoken on your homelands? If so, what percentage of your people would you estimate are fluent speakers? 

Our people, the Shinnecock, lost the use of our language in the early days. It was deemed inappropriate by the settlers, and our ancestors actually were punished for using our language. After thirty years of research, today we are bringing our language back through language classes, and many of our adults and children who participate are able to speak in complete sentences. It is really inspiring and represents a true testament that we are not going away. We are regaining our strength and place here in our home, the woodlands and stony shores of eastern Long Island—Shinnecock USA. 

What economic enterprises does your nation own? 

The Shinnecock Nation recently initiated the pursuit of cigarette distribution, which would benefit the community by enhancing our education and health programs. We are pursuing several other potential economic endeavors, pending General Council input and approval.  

What annual events does your community sponsor? 

Our nation holds several events annually. For most of them, we extend invitations to our relative tribal nations and local guests. Annually we celebrate a fall Thanksgiving Nunnowa Feast (on the Thursday before national Thanksgiving Day) and a spring tribal gathering referred to as June Meeting (the first Sunday of June). Our main sponsored event is our powwow. For the past 68 years, we have gathered in celebration of the life and pride of Native America. This celebration brings together representatives from over five hundred tribal nations. It takes place on Labor Day weekend on our historic Powwow Grounds. We love our powwow! 

Shinnecock Nation Powwow a
The 67th Annual Shinnecock Powwow, 2013: Members of the Board of Trustees lead the Grand Entry. From left to right: Taobi Silva, Daniel S. Collins Sr., and Eugene Cuffee II. Photo by Beverly Jensen, courtesy of the Shinnecock Indian Nation.


What other attractions are available for visitors on your land?

The Shinnecock Indian Nation is home to the Shinnecock Nation Cultural Center and Museum. The museum recently opened Wikun Village—an outdoor, traditional Shinnecock village—to offer physical education and the experience of the way we lived historically. The museum is open year round and is a must-see if you ever have a chance to visit. 

How does your nation deal with the United States as a sovereign nation?

We understand that the Shinnecock Indian Nation needs to be a neighbor in good faith with the surrounding communities and states, whose friendship we embrace. The U.S. government has a trust responsibility to all Native nations, and we hold them to that. Shinnecock has always been a sovereign nation. As the 565th federally recognized tribe, we honor the government-to-government relationship that has been established with the United States. We trust that the United States will provide the resources and protections as stated in all applicable federal laws, codes, and regulations. We honor all of our Native veterans and especially those who paid the ultimate price for our freedom under the U.S. flag. 

What message would you like to share with the youth of your community? 

To our youth I say: Be proud of who you are, no matter where you are. Teach others about who you are and your culture and tradition. Have a dream and hold on to it; know that everything is possible and achievable. Respect yourself and your elders; learn from positive mentors and role models in your community and abroad. Always give back to your community by doing your part to develop the generations that follow. Always remember that you are loved and that you matter! 

Is there anything else you would like to add? 

I would like to thank you for affording me this honorable opportunity to share with you! Tabutne (thank you). 

Thank you.

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October 22, 2014

Join us for a photo-tastic weekend! Photographers Will Wilson and Larry McNeil will be in D.C. October 25 and 26

This weekend—October 25 and 26—come down to National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C., to meet photographers Larry McNeil (Tlingit/Nisga’a) and Will Wilson (Diné/Bilagáana) and be a part of their new work! The museum is hosting public programs with the artists in conjuction with the exhibition Indelible: The Platinum Photographs of Larry McNeil and Will Wilson, on display in the SeaAlaska Gallery on the museum’s second floor through January 5, 2015.

Both photographers will be working collaboratively with visitors—this means you—in the Potomac Atrium on the museum’s ground floor. Here's what each artist plans to do:

On Saturday, October 25, Will Wilson brings his ongoing project Critical Indigenous Photographic Exchange (CIPX) to the National Mall. Will has already taken CIPX to such museums as the Denver Art Museum and the Wheelwright in Santa Fe. In Washington, Will will use his old-fashioned 8 x 10 view camera and a 140-year-old lens to make tintype portraits of visitors to the museum. He will develop the tintypes in an outdoor darkroom adjacent to his makeshift photography studio, and he'll give each tintype to the sitter. In exchange, he asks for permission to add a scanned image of the tintype to his CIPX portrait gallery.

Will encourages his sitters to bring objects of personal significance to appear with them in their portraits. Please keep in mind that, depending on interest, there may not be time for everyone to be photographed. Will will be making photographs on Saturday from 10:30 a.m. and to 4 p.m. On Sunday, the portraits will be on display, and Will will be available to speak with visitors about his work. 

Larry McNeil will use this weekend at the museum to launch his newest project, Larry McNeil and the Art of the Digital Age. From the perspective of an indigenous photographer working in the 21st century, through photographs made with cell phones and circulated on social media sites, Larry approaches what he calls "the art of the everyday."

LarrySnow_Coolpix_2013 (1)
Larry McNeil. © 2013 Larry McNeil

Larry's project is interactive, and he and the museum encourage everyone to participate. He is uploading his photographs to project sites he has created on Instagram and Facebook. There he invites us not only to comment on his work, but also to upload our own images. We hope those of you who can’t make it to the National Mall will take part from wherever you are. By inviting dialogue and exchange with us, Larry acknowledges the power of social media in shaping and re-shaping our understanding of photography. Larry will be at the museum on the National Mall Saturday, October 25, and Sunday, October 26, from 10:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. 

—Heather Shannon

Heather Shannon is photo archivist at the National Museum of the American Indian and curator of Indelible 

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