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September 12, 2014

Meet Native America: Gari Pikyavit Lafferty, Chairwoman of the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh 

Please introduce yourself with your name and title. 

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Paiute Tribal Chairwoman Gari Pikyavit Lafferty.

Gari Pikyavit Lafferty, chairwoman of the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah

Where is your tribe located? 

Our tribe is made up of five bands of Paiutes. From the north to south in Utah, we are the Koosharem Band, in Richfield, Utah; Kanosh Band, in Kanosh; Cedar Band and Indian Peaks Band, in the Cedar City area; and Shivwits Band, in St. George. 

Where were the five bands originally from? 

We have always been in central and southern Utah area. 

What is a significant point in history from your people that you would like to share? 

On Febuary 27, 1953, the federal government outlined a strategy for termination. Our tribe was terminated in 1954. Federal assistance ended for our people. It's written that almost immediately after termination began, it became clear it was a mistake. Struggling for survival, the Southern Paiutes in Utah worked their way through an alien legal and bureaucratic maze to finally win restoration on April 3, 1980. During termination the Paiutes lost well over 15,000 acres of land. 

What responsibilities do you have as a tribal leader? 

Responsibilities comes in all forms, from attending monthly meetings, attending state affairs, federal issues that may have some kind of effect on your tribe. It's vital as well that your Native community see you as often as possible. 

I am on the road a lot, out and about for our tribe. It's very critical for me to be active in my Native community. I like being with the people, and I never forget they are the ones who put me here as chairwoman. I should add, though, that my family time is important to me more then ever. 

How did your life experience prepare you to lead your tribe?

It's interesting how someone comes to tribal leadership or tribal politics. As for myself, it's something that was instilled in me at a young age. I am proud to say that with my dad and grandfathers and many family members, leadership runs deep in my family. My sister Marguerite Pikyavit Teller was the first woman elected chair of the Paiute Tribe. It was only a matter of time for me.

I am a mother of five amazing children—Heston Smith, Mckinley Smith, Sable Lafferty, Charles M. P. Lafferty, and Aries Jackson. I'm married to one great man, Charles Lafferty, who supports me. At times he doesn't understand why I have chosen to put myself in this position. It's not for everyone. You have to be cut from a different kind of cloth. If you're a weeping willow, it's not for you. But if you can withstand the storm that comes with politics, then this is the job for you.

My dad told me at a very young age, "Gari, you will be sitting at the head of the tribe one day." I have always been active in community affairs as well—school, church, band, tribal. 

Who inspired you as a mentor? 

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Chief Mckay Pikyavit.

My father is my greatest mentor of all. I am very proud to say that my father was the last chief of our people—Chief Mckay Richard Pikyavit. My dad was so amazing there just isn't enough paper or time to say all I would like to say about him. My father was very much a family man, he took his responsibilities as a father very seriously. My father was a farmhand at a young age, then worked for our county road department. We had a large family, so when my brothers and sisters got older my mother worked as well.

My father was very active in tribal affairs. Community, church, school—my dad said you have to be out doing all you can in your community to make a difference. My father was one that spearheaded the work for our tribal restatement under the federal government. I remember being a young child and seeing my dad traveling the state of Utah to meet with others working towards the goal of our restoration as a federally recognized tribe. After long years of hard work, it came to pass on April 3, 1980, signed into law by President Carter. The dream of action came to pass.

I saw the long hours, days, months, years it took for this to happen. So I think that if I can do a fourth of what my dad achieved for the Paiute people, I will leave feeling I was a very accomplished leader for our people. Well, I have to say that I am very proud I am the daughter of Mckay Richard Pikyavit, the last chief of the Paiute people.

How is your tribal government set up?

Our government is set up with a tribal chairman and five council members representing the five bands. Six elected office-holders in all sit on our Tribal Council.

Is there a functional, traditional entity of leadership in addition to your modern government system? 

No, there is no traditional entity of leadership.

How often are elected leaders chosen? 

Elections are held every four years for a term of four years. First, each band area elects its band chairman or chairwoman. Members of the band eighteen years and older are eligible to vote. Once that is done, then all five newly elected band chairs' names go into the election for tribal chair. This election is open to all tribal members living anywhere in the United States.

Each band chair reports monthly to the Tribal Council on that band's affairs. One interesting note: This is the first time our Tribal Council members are all women. 

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Tribal Council of the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah, 2014. From left to right: Toni Pikyavit, chairwoman of the Koosharem Band; Lara Tom, chairwoman of the Cedar Band; Jeanine Borchardt, chairwoman of the Indian Peaks Band; Gari Pikyavit Lafferty, tribal chairwoman; Hope Silvas, vice-chairwoman of the Shivwits Band; Corrina Bow, chairwoman of the Kanosh Band. 

How often does the Tribal Council meet? 

Tribal Council meets twice a month, more often if necessary. Each band has a representative for health, education, and housing. Together they make up all boards for the tribe. Each band regularly holds a meeting as well, monthly or more often. Some bands have more going on than others in their areas.

Additionally, a General Council Meeting consisting of all enrolled tribal members over the age of 18 is held each year on the first Saturday in November. 

Approximately how many members are in the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah? 

We have around 900-plus members. 

What are the criteria to become a member?

For enrollment in our tribe is you have to have at least one fourth Paiute blood from your mother or father. 

Is your language still spoken on your homelands? If so, what percentage of your people would you estimate are fluent speakers?

Sadly, like for many other tribes, our language is spoken by our elders. And not too many of them have many othes to talk to. 

What economic enterprises does your tribe own?

All of our bands have their own economic enterprises. There are lots of tribal members who have their own enterprise for making money from sewing, bead work, painting.

What annual events does your tribe sponsor? 

Annual events vary from each band area. But as far as the tribe, we have our Restoration Gathering, an annual meeting where we hold our powwow, pageant, softball tournament, hand games, feast, parade. This all takes place the second weekend of June. This is celebration of our restoration as a federally recognized tribe, along with the annual meeting that's held in April. 

What attractions are available for visitors on your land? 

A great attraction would be to come and visit us during our Restoration Gathering. Also, we live in the most beautiful place in the world, with many national and state parks around us. 

How does your tribe deal with the United States as a sovereign nation? 

Our concern as a soveriegn nation is just to be a good neighbor and offer support if and where it's needed. 

What message would you like to share with the youth of your tribe?

To our youth, I'd like to say that life is short. Enjoy it. Take every opportunity you can to make the very best of it for you and your families. We all make mistakes, but don't let them define who you are, or who you want to become. Use your mistakes as building blocks to your future. Listen to your elders. They may not all have a high school or college diploma, but what they do have is life experiences. And you need both to have success in your life.

You see only one person in me, but I stand on many shoulders of family members, as well as tribal people who have come before me. I will always be grateful for those who have worked very hard to get our tribe to where it is today. We are small compared to other tribes, but we have many great people who are thriving and working very hard for our people today and for those to come.

Is there anything else you would like to add? 

I would like to end with saying, we are living our grandparents' dreams, what they hoped would come to pass for our Paiute people. Let's not disappoint them. Just as they were to us, we are to our grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Let's make sure we are writing their history well. 

Thank you.

All photos are courtesy of the Paiute Tribe of Utah and are used with permission.

To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. Meet-native-america
From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All photos used with permission.         

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September 11, 2014

Haudenosaunee–U.S. Treaty of 1794 Comes to the Museum

Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations
, opening September 21, offers people a rare opportunity to see documents that have shaped our history and still define our mutual obligations. The treaty between the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and the United States is one of the earliest negotiated between Native Americans and the U.S. government under the Constitution. 

From left:
Faithkeeper of the Turtle Clan of the Onondaga Nation of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy Oren Lyons, PhD; Tadodaho of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy Chief Sidney Hill; Suzan Harjo (Cheyenne and Hodulgee Muscogee), guest curator of Nation to NationKevin Gover (Pawnee), director of the National Museum of the American Indian; and Jim Gardner, executive for Legislative Archives, Presidential Programs, and Museum Programs at the National Archives, unveil the Treaty of Canandaigua of 1794, on loan to the museum.

In 1794 representatives of the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and an American delegation led by President Washington's ambassador, Timothy Pickering, met on treaty grounds near Canandaigua, New York, to negotiate an accord. The two parties wished to confirm the peace between them and to secure their respective interests. Working together, the Six Nations—Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and Tuscarora—sought to recover lands in New York State they had lost to the United States following the Revolutionary War. The United States wanted Native lands in Ohio and assurances that the Haudenosaunee would not ally themselves with the Ohio tribes against the U.S. Army. 

More than 1,600 Haudenosaunee people gathered for the treaty council. Cornplanter (Ki-On-Twog-Ki), a Seneca war chief, and Red Jacket (Sagoyewatha), a distinguished Seneca and speaker for his fellow chiefs, took the lead, although others joined the talks as well. In the end, after 23 days of negotiations, the United States ceded back more than a million acres of Haudenosaunee lands and agreed to an annual payment of goods. The Haudenosaunee ceded all claims to Pennsylvania and the Ohio Valley. 

This week, the National Archives lent the Treaty with the Six Nations to the National Museum of the American Indian for the opening of the exhibition Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations. Haudenosaunee Faithkeeper Chief Oren Lyons and the Tadodaho of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, Chief Sidney Hill, came to Washington to welcome the treaty to the museum. 

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AP953247871443_7 AP364887375351_6Top left: Gail Joice, collections manager at the museum, and Terry Boone, exhibits conservator for the National Archives, prepare to move the treaty to the exhibition gallery. Top right: Chief Lyons and Director Gover study the treaty after installation. Center: Chief Hill and Chief Lyons scan the names of the leaders who signed the treaty for the Six Nations. Bottom: The signature and seal of Ki-On-Twog-Ky, also known as Cornplanter, and the signatures of President George Washington and Secretary of State Edmund Randolph; Washington often had a secretary add his signature to documents, but the president signed this treaty in his own hand.

Nation to Nation represents one of the rare times the treaty has been exhibited. James Zeender, senior registrar in the Exhibits Division of the National Archives, describes the document's journey to this point:

After its signing on November 11, 1794, the treaty was brought back to the seat of government in New York City. President Washington obtained the Senate's advice and consent and ratified the treaty on behalf of the United States Government.  Washington's ratification is visible as two smaller pieces of parchment attached to the treaty at the top and bottom of the original, signed on lower piece by Washington and Secretary of State Edmund Randolph. In the years to come, the treaty was kept with other treaties at the State Department until they were moved to the new National Archives Building on the Mall in the mid-1930s. At the beginning of this century, the treaty and other highly valuable records were relocated temporarily during a major renovation of the building downtown and returned a few years later.

Historic documents are fragile and sensitive to light, so original treaties can be displayed for only a short time. The treaty kept by the Haudenosaunee is held in the collection of the Ontario County Historical Society in Canadaigua, where it is shown once a year on Treaty Day, November 11. The treaty on loan from the National Archives will be on view at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C., from September 21, 2014—the opening of Nation to Nation and the tenth anniversary of the museum on the National Mall—through February 2015. 

The transcript of the Treaty with the Six Nations originally appears in Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler, 1904. 
Digitized transcript made available by the Oklahoma State University. 

The photos above were taken September 8, 2014, at the National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, D.C., by Kevin Wolf/AP Images for the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian. 


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September 03, 2014

Archaeology Fest—Get Hands-On with Native History at the Montauk Indian Museum

Archaeology Fest Poster

It’s not often one has the opportunity to spend a Saturday learning how to blow a dart or throw a spear, but the third annual Montauk Archaeology Fest, a free event hosted by the Montauk Indian Museum on Oct. 4, 2014, from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., promises to offer this and more.

“Kids and adults love the hands-on activities,” said Lawrence Cooke, Montauk Indian Museum president and founder. “We have people travel from all over the country to participate in the events.”

Experts will be on site sharing expertise in many different areas, including:

  • Flint-knapping (stone tool manufacture) 
  • Fire-starting 
  • Tanning 
  • Earth-fired pottery making 
  • Wampum making 
  • Roasting/baking of Native foods

And much more!

“Every person finds their own interests, but many really like to try throwing the atlatls,” Mr. Cooke said.

The mission of the Montauk Indian Museum is to educate and enlighten the public regarding the long Native American history of the Montauk area. The museum is located at:

Montauk Highway & Second House Road 
Montauk, New York 11954

Directions: Take the Montauk Highway toward Montauk. Just before you enter town, the museum is on the left, slightly past the corner of Second House Road and Montauk Highway.

For more information, call (631) 903-9603 or visit http://montaukindianmuseum.org. A video of past Archaeology Fest activities can be viewed here.

—Joshua Stevens

Joshua Stevens is Public Affairs specialist at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York. 

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What an excellent event this should be!
Would love to be able to come but I live in Seattle :(

September 02, 2014

Protecting a Way of Life: Royce Manuel Leads a Workshop and Demonstration on Traditional Bows and Arrows

By Keevin Lewis 

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On Thursday, June 12, 2014, at the Talking Stick Visitor Center in Scottsdale, Arizona, around 60 interested people attended a bow and arrow showcase and reception highlighting a commmunity art project conceived and led by Royce Manuel (Ak-Mierl Aw-Thum). In the snapshot above, you can see community artists Chris Hughes (holding a quiver) and Jacob Butler (in the baseball cap) talking about the bows and arrows they made from trees found in their home regions. And then, of course, there were bow and arrow demonstrations for guests at the reception and, that Saturday, for interested families at a nearby park. The results were wonderful to see, as some arrows easily cleared 30 yards! 

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Leading up to these events, Royce held a four-week bow and arrow workshop that focused on how to make a self bow and arrows that are good enough for hunting. The workshop targeted fathers and sons, uncles and nephews, and each participant had the opportunity to harvest wood for his own bow and gather plants for his arrows. Obsidian was provided for making arrowheads.

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The National Museum of the American Indian supported Royce’s project—his research into bows and arrows and other objects in the museum’s collections outside Washington, D.C., the workshop, and the reception—through the Artist Leadership Program.

You can see Royce talking about his experience at the museum and his plans for the community art workshop in a short video on the museum’s YouTube channel. For more information on other artists’ projects supported by the Artist Leadership Program, scroll through our section of the museum’s blog or visit our photo album on Facebook. Information about the program, including its goals and detailed instructions on how to apply, is available on the museum’s website

Keevin Lewis (Navajo) is coordinator of the Artist Leadership Program at the National Museum of the America Indian.  

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