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January 30, 2014

Meet Native America: Chief James Allan, Chairman of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh, NMAI 

Chief at anti-bullying press conference HREI 09.26.2013 a
Chief James Allan, chairman of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe, speaking at an anti-bullying press conference. September 26, 2013, Human Rights Education Institute, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho.

Please introduce yourself with your name and title. 

Chief James Allan, chairman of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe.

Where is your tribe located?

Our reservation is located in the panhandle of Idaho, approximately 15 miles south of the city of Coeur d’Alene.

Where were your people originally from?

Our territory spanned nearly four million acres through present-day northern Idaho, northeastern Washington, and western Montana.

What responsibilities do you have as a tribal leader?

As the chairman of the tribe, I preside over Tribal Council meetings. But more than that,
I serve as the spokesperson for the tribe and my people.

How did your life experience prepare you to lead your community?

I grew up the underdog in a very poor and economically depressed area on the reservation. I graduated from Lakeside High School on the reservation and went to Eastern Washington University, where I received my degree in Political Science and became the first person in my family ever to graduate from college. Growing up as the underdog really gave me a passion to fight for the underdog.

Who inspired you as a mentor?

Ernie Stensgar was my mentor. He served as our tribe’s chairman for over 20 years and is still our vice chairman today. He taught me that the fight is home with our people. They are the ones who elect us, and they are the ones we fight for every day when we come to work. Our people are the reason we work so hard.

Are you a descendant of a historical leader? If so, who?

Yes, I am related to Chief Morris Antelope, who was a historical leader of our tribe.

What is a significant point in history from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe that you would like to share?

We filed a lawsuit against the State of Idaho to establish title to Lake Coeur d’Alene, and in 2001 the U.S. Supreme Court upheld our claim and reaffirmed our ownership. Our tribe has been here since time immemorial, living, playing, and relying on Lake Coeur d’Alene for our livelihood. Over the past century, mining activities in the Silver Valley, upstream from Lake Coeur d’Alene, have resulted in heavy contamination in the lake and the entire Coeur d’Alene Basin. Today, the Silver Valley is one of the biggest Superfund sites in the United States.

Our tribe has been at the forefront of cleanup efforts in the Coeur d’Alene Basin. And because of our ties to the lake, we have always wanted to protect the lake from further pollution. We have always been here and we are proud of the fact that we’ve stood up for our rights to the lake, which has been so important to our people.

Education donations 2013 - group photo 02.08.2013a
Chief Allan and members of the community celebrating the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's support for education. February 8, 2013, Plummer, Idaho. Since 1992, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe has awarded grants totaling more than $20 million to schools, school districts, and other nonprofit educational organizations in Idaho. Since 2005, the tribe's annual education donations have totaled more than $1 million dollars each year. 


Approximately how many members are in your tribe?

There are approximately 2,400 members of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe.

What are the criteria to become a member of your tribe?

We have a blood quantum requirement, as well as a descendancy requirement. To be enrolled as a member of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe, you must have one-quarter Indian blood and at least one of your parents must be Coeur d’Alene.

Is your language still spoken on your homelands? If so, what percentage of your people would you estimate are fluent speakers?

Sadly, our native language is vanishing. We are doing everything in our power to preserve it in schools and homes. We have just two remaining elders who are fluent in the Coeur d’Alene language. We have a language department dedicated to documenting the language, learning it, and revitalizing it. We are teaching it in our tribal school to our students and sharing it through cultural events and after-school programs. Coeur d’Alene language classes are also available through our local community college, where students can learn Coeur d’Alene to fulfill their foreign language credits, and employees can take advantage of language classes offered at tribal headquarters during lunchtime. Our tribal radio station, KWIS 88.3, broadcasts some language programming as well.

How is your tribal government set up?

Our tribe is organized under a constitution approved by the Bureau of Indian Affairs on September 2, 1949. We are governed by a seven-member council elected by the general membership of the tribe.

Is there a functional, traditional entity of leadership in addition to your modern government system?

No.

How often are elected leaders chosen?

Council members are elected to three-year terms. We have elections annually, and each year two or three of the seven council positions are elected.

Executive leaders—chairman, vice chairman, and secretary-treasurer—are elected internally by the council to one-year terms.

How often does the council meet?

Our Tribal Council meets weekly on Thursdays.

What economic enterprises does the Coeur d'Alene Tribe own?

In order to provide the community with unique and diverse employment opportunities, the tribe has invested in several business operations and enterprises since 2005, including investments in land, information technology, and manufacturing. Our enterprises include:

Coeur d’Alene Casino

Circling Raven Golf Club

Benewah Market

The tribal farm

Red Spectrum Communications

What annual events does your tribe sponsor?

Every year, we host the Julyamsh Powwow in Post Falls, Idaho—the largest outdoor powwow in the Pacific Northwest. Over a period of three days in July, we honor Indian culture with dances, songs, games, and spirituality, and remember those elders who came before us.

We also host Water Potato Day, which is a cultural celebration around the water potato, or sqigwts, a traditional food source of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe. Historically, Coeur d’Alene families returned to the lake in the fall to take the last foods, water potatoes, which our ancestors would dig from the soft mud of the marshy areas around the lake. Today, we celebrate our heritage and culture by teaching school children in the region about the culture and language of the tribe through activities centered on the water potato.

We also host a number of youth activities throughout year, including our annual Rock’n the Rez summer camp for tribal youth, as well as many youth sports programs.

What attractions are available for visitors on your land?

Guests at the Coeur d’Alene Casino Resort Hotel can enjoy the casino, relax at Spa Ssakwa’q’n, or play a round of golf at the beautiful, award-winning Circling Raven Golf Club.

We are proud of our Veterans Park in Plummer, Idaho, which has a beautiful statue and memorial honoring all of our tribal veterans who have served our country.

We are also very proud of our Benewah Wellness Center, a state-of-the-art fitness center open to tribal members as well as the greater community.

Across the street from our Tribal Headquarters is the trailhead for the Trail of the Coeur d’Alenes, a 70-mile-long, paved trail that runs from Plummer to Mullan, Idaho, traveling through beautiful mountains and wetlands, and through Heyburn State Park.

Visitors can also check out the Sacred Encounters exhibit and Idaho’s oldest building at Coeur d’Alene’s Old Mission State Park in Cataldo, Idaho. Located on land that was once within our aboriginal territory, the mission was built between 1850 and 1853 by Catholic missionaries with the help of many of our tribal members. Our Sacred Encounters exhibit allows visitors to see what life was like when we first encountered Jesuit missionaries and how that encounter affected tribal life.

How does your tribe deal with the United States as a sovereign nation?

We are actively engaged at the federal level, weighing in on policies and laws that impact us and Indian Country as a whole. For example, we have worked with Senator Mike Crapo on a bill called the Indian Trust Asset Reform Act currently before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs in the U.S. Senate.

What message would you like to share with the youth of your tribe?

First and foremost, I would tell all of the youth in my tribe and in tribes across the country to get their education. Life goes by so quickly, but in the end no one can take your education away from you. And it will help you to do so much in your life. Second, I would tell our youth to do what makes them happy. It is hard to decide what to be when you grow up, and there are so many options out there. You can try to make a lot of money or try to change the world, but whatever it is that you choose to do, make sure that it makes you happy and that you do it with the passion and the love that we all have inside of us.

Is there anything else you would like to add?

I would just like to reemphasize the importance of getting an education. It is a game changer, and it will change your life. Education will set you free.

Thank you.

The photographs above are used courtesy of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. 

To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. 

Meet-native-america
From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All images used with permission. 

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January 16, 2014

Meet Native America: Lyndale George, Council Member, Skidegate, British Columbia

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of indigenous communities, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. 

Established in 1989 through an Act of Congress, the National Museum of the American Indian is an institution of living cultures dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the life, languages, literature, history, and arts of the Native peoples of the Western Hemisphere. This is the first interview in the series to feature a leader from one of the First Nations of Canada. —Dennis Zotigh, NMAI 

Lyndale George 2
Lyndale George, member of the Skidegate Band Council, Haida Gwaii. 

Please introduce yourself with your name and title.

My name is Lyndale George, and I am currently serving as a council member for my community of Skidegate, British Columbia.

Can you give us your Native name and its English translation? 

My Haida name is Jaadkuungits, which translates to “woman in front" or "woman on the point.” It is always difficult to get a direct translation as these names have been passed down for generations. 

Where is your community located? 

The community of Skidegate is on the islands of Haida Gwaii, approximately 90 miles off the northwest coast of British Columbia. Prior to contact, there were approximately one hundred Haida villages located throughout the islands. Once smallpox was introduced to the islands, it decimated the population, and the survivors settled in the two main communities of Skidegate and Old Masset, which remain today. 

After European contact the islands were named the Queen Charlotte Islands. In the summer of 2010, the provincial government recognized the name Haida Gwaii. Haida Gwaii is now the official name.

Where were your people originally from? 

Scientists can establish that the Haida have lived on the islands of Haida Gwaii for more that ten thousand years. There are also Haida communities located in southern Alaska

Skidegate Village a
Skidegate Village, Haida Gwaii. 

What is a significant point in history from your nation that you would like to share?

In 2002 the Haida won a case which basically stated that when the crown infringes on Haida lands and resources, then proper and meaningful consultation must take place with the Haida. The decision was upheld by the Supreme Court of Canada in 2004. The relationship between the Haida and Canada is government to government, and that is reflected in the agreements we currently have. One example is the shared responsibility and jurisdiction for the national park Gwaii Haanas, which covers a vast area on the southern island of Haida Gwaii and includes many of the historical and traditional village sites. 

What responsibilities do you have as a First Nations community leader?

The role of the Skidegate Band Council is to set the strategic direction of the community through the development of sound programs and policies. We are also responsible for the general well being of the membership and oversee capital, education, social development, health, and economic development programs in the community. 

We also work collaboratively with the senior level of government—the Council of the Haida Nation—as well as with all local municipal governments on Haida Gwaii for the betterment of all communities.

How did your life experience prepare you to lead your community?

I left my community when I was eight years old to attend school on the mainland, and after high school I attended and graduated from Brigham Young University in Utah. When I returned to Canada, I worked with a number of First Nations communities, Tribal Councils, and the provincial and federal government in the field of social work. In 2002 I completed a Masters of Social Work degree from the University of Victoria. 

After 50 years away from my community and 35 years' experience in social work, I returned to accept a job as the executive director of Haida Child and Family Services, a position I currently hold. I have always felt the need to give back to my community and to provide support and leadership using my experience in the social, education, and health fields, as well as in working within government systems.  

Over the years I noted that women seldom sat on the council, despite the fact that the Haida people are a matrilineal society. I felt that it was important for women to have a voice, to represent the children, women, and elderly in the community, as we traditionally have been the caretakers of the nation. 

Are you a descendant of a historical leader? If so, who?

I am a descendant of strong Haida women and men who survived the onslaught of foreign cultures, foreign diseases, and government efforts to destroy our culture and existence. We are still here and still have control over our land and way of life. 

Who inspired you as a mentor?

Two people have inspired me in my life. The first was my grandmother (naanay), who raised me until the age of eight. She taught me about my culture, history, family connections, and who I am as a Haida person. I learned to be proud of who I am and to treat others in a respectful manner. 

The other mentor would be my husband, who has spent many years giving to his community as well as other First Nations communities across the country and even into the United States. He has been a strong proponent of strong and fiscally responsible First Nations governance and leadership. He also has a strong belief in our own traditional system of government and has instilled in me the importance of ensuring that I deal with governance in a positive, honest, and open manner.   

How is your government set up?

There are two levels of government. The village councils—the Skidegate Band Council and Old Massett Village Council—deal with the day-to-day operations of their communities through federal legislation and have no jurisdiction or power beyond the Indian Act of Canada. The Council of the Haida Nation is a political entity with the mandate to “protect the land and waters of Haida Gwaii."

Is there a functional, traditional entity of leadership in addition to your modern government system?

The Hereditary Chiefs Council sits as an advisory board of the Council of the Haida Nation, provides guidance and advice about Haida cultural matters, and sits on negotiation and litigation teams. 

How often are elected leaders chosen?           

Elections in Skidegate Village take place every two years. Elections to the Council of the Haida Nation are held every three years. 

How often does your tribal/band/Native community council meet?

The Skidegate Band Council meets a minimum of once a week. 

Approximately how many members are in your community?

There are 1,594 registered members of the Skidegate Band; 738 currently reside on the reserve. 

What are the criteria to become a member of your community?

Membership of a band, or Indian status, is determined by the Indian Act of Canada. However membership of the Haida Nation is based on ancestry, and persons do not need to have status to be recognized by the Council of the Haida Nation. 

Is the Haida language still spoken on your homelands? If so, what percentage of your people would you estimate are fluent speakers?

In the community of Skidegate, there has been a resurgence of language, culture, and traditions over a number of years. Language, culture, traditions, and stories are being documented and recorded through the Skidegate Haida Immersion Program (SHIP). We have been very fortunate in our community to have a number of elders, and they have been a part of SHIP for many years. They attend “school” with the same hours as the local schools, and they have taken on the task of preserving our language. There are approximately twenty fluent Haida speakers. However, the language is now being taught in all the schools, including the daycare and nursery school. 

Also attending SHIP are youth who have completed high school and have taken on the task of recording the language and developing computer-based programs for learning by being totally immersed in the language. It is an exciting time for many to relearn their language. The cultural revival in history, language, traditions, and relationship to the land has instilled a new confidence in the younger generation. 

What economic enterprises does your community own?

The Skidegate Band owns a few small businesses on the reserve, including a gas station, utility pole plant, and office space renting to a variety of organizations and businesses. The band also owns a Heritage Centre at Kaay ′Llnagaay, which is a repository of our history, our language, and our art. Further development of the Heritage Centre will include a hotel and restaurant. 

Image001-1
The Haida Heritage Centre at Kaay ′Llnagaay, Haida Gwaii. 

As for the nation, and as a result of the new relationship with the crown, consultation is a key factor. Haidas control many of the economic opportunities on the island, including fishing lodges, restaurants, Taan Forest products, and ecotourism companies. 

What annual events does your community sponsor?

During Skidegate Days, we sponsor the Totem to Totem Marathon, which is a qualifier for the Boston Marathon. In the past we have had participants from as far as Vietnam, Australia, and England, as well as many local participants. 

We also sponsor summer Rediscovery Cultural Camps for children and youth, and we especially encourage Haida youth living off island to attend. 

What attractions are available for visitors on your land?

Tourists come for a variety of outdoor activities, including fishing, hiking, kayaking, canoeing, whale watching, tours to old village sites in the Gwaii Haanas National Park, viewings of totem poles, the museum at the Heritage Centre, and to meet local artists. Haida Gwaii is pristine, one of the few places that still exist where people can witness the beauty of nature at its best. 

How do the Haida deal with Canada as a sovereign nation?

Our nation has fought hard for recognition of who we are as Haida, as well as for the land and rights that go with recognition. Having achieved some rights, Haidas are in the continual process of reconciliation with Canada based on our pre-existing sovereignty, the assumed sovereignty of the crown, and our nation-to-nation and government-to-government relationship. 

Haida Gwaii belongs to the Haida, and we will determine what happens with the land, ocean, and resources. The Canadian government must consult.

What message would you like to share with the youth of your community?

We have amazing youth in our community who value their culture, language, and traditions. and are proud to share those values with others. I continue to encourage our young people to be strong, healthy, and proud of their heritage. 

Thank you. 

The photographs above are used courtesy of the George family and the community of Skidegate. 

To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. 

Meet-native-america
From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All images used with permission. 

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January 09, 2014

Meet Native America: Herbert G. Johnson, Sr., Second Chief of the Alabama–Coushatta Tribe of Texas

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh, NMAI 

Dad
Herbert G. Johnson, Sr., second chief of the Alabama–Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Photo by Colin Poncho (Alabama–Coushatta Tribe of Texas).

Please introduce yourself with your name and title. 

Mikko Atokla Skalaaba—Second Chief Herbert G. Johnson, Sr.—of the Alabama–Coushatta Tribe of Texas. I am also a member of the Beaver Clan.

Where is your community located? 

The Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation is located in Polk County near Livingston, Texas. 

Where are the Alabama–Coushatta originally from?

Although they are both of the same Muskhogean language stock, the Alabama and Coushatta were originally separately organized tribes that inhabited adjacent areas near present-day Montgomery, Alabama. As European settlers began to encroach on their lands, in 1763 the tribes began to migrate westward, first to Louisiana and then to the Big Thicket area of southeast Texas where we live today. 

What responsibilities do you have as second chief? 

Part of my responsibility as second chief is to represent the Alabama–Coushatta Tribe on cultural, spiritual, and historical matters whenever possible. The principal chief and second chief also work together as advisory members to the Tribal Council. 

How did your life’s experience prepare you to lead your tribe? 

Serving on the board for one of the local schools for 43 years, as well as on the Tribal Council for two terms, and serving as a deacon and elder at the Indian Presbyterian Church helped prepare me. These leadership roles have enabled me to be a productive citizen in our community by listening and not casting any judgment until all sides are heard.

When I was growing up on the reservation, my family taught me to be respectful of any and all people no matter their circumstances. I have lived with that philosophy for all of my life. 

Who inspired you as a mentor? 

My family believed in me and gave me a good foundation. I eventually went to junior college. It was at Jacksonville Baptist College (JBC) in Jacksonville, Texas, that I met the most important and influential person in my life outside my family, Coach Vernon Harton. As a basketball coach, he taught me many things, on and off the court, but one thing was perseverance. Even though I struggled with certain aspects of school and the game, he made me see the bigger picture. I went on to become an All-American while at JBC. His teachings and influence have inspired me in so many ways even to this day.

Are you a descendant of a historical leader? 

No. 

What is a significant point in history from your tribe that you would like to share? 

In 1854, land was given to the Alabama–Coushatta by the State of Texas through General Sam Houston. The Alabama–Coushatta Reservation is one of three Indian reservations in Texas. Also, the Alabama–Coushatta Reservation is the largest Indian reservation in Texas. 

Chiefs n clan leaders 2
Chiefs and clan elders of the Alabama–Coushatta Tribe of Texas at the inauguration of new principal and second chiefsVeterans Pavilion of the Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation, January 1, 2014. Standing from left to right:  Billy Alex (no clan), Minnie Celestine Cameron (Panther), Haskell Sylestine (Deer), Maxine Silva (Wind), Christine Poncho (Daddy Longlegs),  Arlene Williams (Salt), C. B. Celestine (Beaver), and Lawrine Battise (Bear). Seated from left to right: Jack Battise, Sr. (Turkey), Mikko Atokla Skalaaba Herbert G. Johnson, Sr., Mikko Choba Colabe III Clem Sylestine, and Thelma Flores (WIldcat). Photo by Heather Johnson Battiste (Alabama–Coushatta Tribe of Texas)
 

How is your tribal government set up? 

Throughout history, the tribe has been ruled by both a principal chief (mikko choba) and a second chief (mikko atolka) who are elected by the people to serve lifetime terms. The Tribal Council was established in 1957 and is now recognized as the main governing body. Seven tribal members serve on the council, and they are elected by popular vote. 

How often are elected leaders chosen? 

Members of the tribal council serve three-year, rotating terms. As mentioned above, the two chiefs are elected to lifetime terms. 

How often does your council meet? 

The Tribal Council meets twice a month. Special meetings are held when needed. 

Approximately how many members are in your tribe? 

There are approximately 1,150 enrolled tribal members. About half live on the reservation. 

What are the criteria to become a member of your tribe? 

To become a member of the Alabama–Coushatta Tribe, a person must be at least one-quarter degree of Alabama and or Coushatta blood and show direct lineal descent from an ancestor whose name appears on any of the designated official census rolls of the Alabama and Coushatta tribes. 

Are your languages still spoken on your homelands? If so, what percentage of your tribe would you estimate are fluent speakers? 

The Alabama and Coushatta languages are still spoken. About 40 percent of the tribe are fluent speakers. 

What economic enterprises does the Alabama–Coushatta Tribe of Texas own? 

The tribe operates the A/C One Stop Ischoopa, a convenience store on the reservation. The tribe also operates three tobacco shops—one on the reservation, one nearby in the same county, and another in the Houston area. 

What annual events does your community sponsor? 

We have the Children’s Pow wow held the last Saturday of January. During the first weekend in June, we have an annual pow wow, which is our biggest event. We also have the Alabama–Coushatta Indian Week, which is held during October. 

What attractions are available to visitors on your land? 

In addition to the abovementioned events, we have camping and fishing at Lake Tombigbee, a Fourth of July music festival, a Labor Day softball tournament, and various other events. 

How does your tribe deal with the United States as a sovereign nation? 

Our tribe has always been a peaceful tribe. We try to maintain this as we seek more opportunities for our people. We do the best we can. 

What message would you like to share with the youth of your community? 

Our future lies with you. Choose a good path, follow it, and fulfill your dreams. Keep your traditions alive. Make good choices. Always stay positive and make a difference. 

Is there anything else you would like to add? 

As the newly elected second chief of the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe, I’m honored to serve in this new role for my family and my people. I’m looking forward to the days ahead to lead the Alabama–Coushatta to be more self-sufficient and to maintain our ways of life. 

Alíilamolo! Thank you! 

Thank you. 

To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. 

Meet-native-america
From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All images used with permission. 

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