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August 29, 2013

Donald Wanatee, Council Member, Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native peoples today. —Dennis Zotigh, NMAI 

Please introduce yourself with your name and title.

Donald Wanatee, Tribal Council member of the Sac & Fox Tribe.

What responsibilities do you have in your community?

I'm the liaison responsible for local, state, and federal programs, and for incoming mail. I help to validate tribal decisions and strive to communicate with the tribal membership.

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Donald Wanatee, Sac & Fox Tribal Council member. Photo courtesy of the Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa/Meskwaki. 
How did your life experience prepare you to lead?

My parents often talked about tribal activities and discussed the problems of their times, especially the problems brought upon us by the Reorganization Act of 1934. At that time, when they discussed the history of the tribe, the Reorganization Act was one subject. They talked about how the tribe was put upon to accept or not, in a no-compromise situation, the constitution we still use today. Our tribe had their own government implementing their chieftainship, which followed the early customs and traditions of the Meskwaki.

In due time, I was voted onto the Tribal Council in the era of the 1960s. I followed my parents’ concerns by pushing the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to work with the tribe regarding our BIA-operated school problem: Our school system was earmarked for closure in 1968. We now operate our own tribal school system.

Who inspired you as a mentor?

I was inspired by the Meskwaki people. I found true inspiration in my parents, as I followed the discussions they had at home and in community gatherings.

Where is your community located? Where are your people originally from?

The Sac and Fox—the Meskwaki—originated along the St. Lawrence in southern Canada, near Montreal and Three Rivers. To get here I surmise was quite a march for our people. After running around from government troops, we settled in Tama County, Iowa. We, the tribe, in the year 1857 bought 80 acres of land along the Iowa River, which we eventually expanded to 10,000 acres, thus increasing the legitimacy of our land holdings and governmental structure. A so-called "self-governing" tribe, we should have been given instruction in "self-government." Receiving no guidance from federal lawmakers, we stand.

What is a significant point in history from your tribe that you would like to share?

In the year 1938, one Mr. John Byrd submitted his thesis, required to receive an M. A. from the University of Iowa. He stated that the United States government had removed the "Psychic and Moral fiber" formerly held by the tribe, which would allow them, and other Native peoples, to assume responsibility for themselves, to adopt new values, to assimilate to the dominate culture.

This process [of assimilation] was already taking place anyway, with the introduction of boarding schools. The functional, traditional entity of “leadership” within our own system that the writer considered lacking? We always had solid leadership.

Approximately how many members are in your tribe? What are the criteria to become a member of your tribe?

We have approximately 1,400 enrolled members, of whom 50 per cent are over the age of 18.

We are a paternal tribe. In order to be an enrolled member, your father must be enrolled, the minimum [blood] quantum being one-quarter to qualify for enrollment.

Is your language still spoken on your homelands?

Our language is spoken, but language somewhat was broken in tribes pushed by the government to teach English only.

In some cases in the past, the rules regarding enrollment or membership required a petitioner to be able to follow the social, linguistic, ethno-historical, and religious beliefs of the tribe. Recent studies made by the government found that approximately 85 percent of Native Americans are not lingual in their tribal languages.

What economic enterprises does the Sac & Fox Tribe own?

Currently, we have a tribally operated convenience store and fuel station and a casino, which was established in 1993. The profits from these ventures have been used to build houses and roads, a water system, a medical center, and a high school. A good portion of the money is spent on infrastructure and tribal operations.

What attractions are available for visitors on your land?

The land is an attraction in itself: We are west of the Mississippi River and east of the Missouri.

What annual events does the tribe sponsor?

We will be celebrating the 100th anniversary of our tribal powwow in 2014. We welcome everybody to attend and celebrate with us. We extend an invitation to the president of the United States to come and dance with us and help us celebrate at this time, a joyous occasion for our people.

What message would you like to share with the youth of your community?

Our tribe has always maintained our culture. We will continue to carry our culture into the next millennium.

Thank you. 

 
To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. 

Meet-native-america

From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips.

All images used with permission. 

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August 28, 2013

50 Years Ago in Washington, D.C.

NCAI.JFKpic
Walter Wetzel (Blackfeet). president of the national Congress of American Indians, speaks in the Rose Garden. Washington, D.C., March 5, 1963. National Congress of American Indian Records (NMAI.AC.010)

This week marks the 50th anniversary of one of the greatest demonstrations for freedom held in our nation’s capital. The 1963 March on Washington brought people from all over the United States together to speak of civil liberty, civil rights, and economic freedom for all. 

1963 was a big year for not only the black civil rights movement, but for many other minority groups looking to Washington for new and better representation. As I wrote in another post for the National Museum of the American Indian blog, the election of John F. Kennedy represented hope for the blazing of a new frontier of cooperation between the U.S. government and Native American tribes.

P34169.700x700
NCAI President Wetzel, second from the right, meets with JFK. Washington, D.C., March 5, 1963. National Congress of American Indian Records (NMAI.AC.010) [P34169]

Earlier in 1963, leaders from the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) also convened in Washington, D.C. They gathered there for a historic meeting with President John F. Kennedy. The group of tribal leaders, headed by NCAI President Walter Wetzel (Blackfeet), were in the capital trying to persuade Congress to enact legislation that would require the consent of tribal leadership before states could assume jurisdiction over reservations. You can read President Kennedy’s remarks that day on the website of the UC Santa Barbara American Presidency Project.

These photographs, from the records of the National Congress of American Indians, represent just one moment in the long history of Native American leaders and organizations coming to Washington, D.C., to stand up for their rights.

—Rachel Menyuk, archives technician, NMAI Archive Center

This post also appears on the Smithsonian Collections Blog.

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The American fight for Freedom gives a lot of us Indians hope and optimism. We have grown up on the courage of Martin Luther King and in these times of despair here, we seek solace and inspiration in his words and actions.

Even though we are stated as a free country, a number of shackles still bind us as a society and economy. Freedom isn't mere freedom from dictators, it is more of freedom from our own thorns and boundaries which sadly have inflicted many a wound on India.

My Regards,

Bhavya

I didn't know all of this. Thanks for share.

Yes, right before they shoot Kennedy. This is the saddest moment in US history, I think they buried freedom that day.

August 22, 2013

The voyage of building an outrigger canoe: Sanding and gluing

Part 1: Introduction and author bio
Part 2: Harvesting a canoe log . . . or plywood 
Part 3: Roughing out the hull 
Part 4: Making tools without metal, and, on some islands, without rock 
Part 5: Stitch and glue 

Kapiolani_Canoe a 
The Kapi`olani Canoe, on display in Na Mea Makamae o Hawai'i—Hawaiian Treasures, an exhibition shown at the National Museum of Natural History in 2004–05. This fishing canoe is the oldest documented Hawaiian canoe still in existence. It was already quite old when Queen Kapio`lani sent it to the Smithsonian in 1888.


Before I get into the gluing part of the stitch-and-glue operation, let’s take a few moments to lavish praise on the underappreciated, glorious art of sanding. If you’ve ever worked with wood at all—and almost everyone has done something at some time—you know that sanding smooths down, cleans up, shapes, and beautifies. Something roughly sawn from a piece of wood magically turns into a work of art. It’s a miracle!

In modern boatbuilding, there’s a saying that the work is 90 percent sanding. Well, that has largely to do with the epoxies and varnishes used, numerous layers of which need to be applied, with sanding between each coat. But it is entirely possible that for Hawaiians of old, sanding was still a very big job. Reason? No sandpaper. So, what do you use?

In the blog entry on tools, I mentioned how lava rock is not all created equal. Depending on the mineral content of the eruption and how fast the lava cooled, there is a wide range of densities and textures of lava rock. As the 19th-century Hawaiian historian David Malo documents, “A great many names were used to distinguish different kinds of rocks.” In fact, Malo designates 53 different types, each with its uses. Of these, the kinds used for smoothing and polishing are identified as a-na, ka-wae-wae, o-ahi or o-la-i, o-i-o, po-hue-hue, and puna. Whether anyone today knows which of these is which, I do not know. 

Polishing Stones 1b
Hawaiian polishing stones in the Peabody-Essex Museum collection. Photo by RDK Herman, courtesy of the Peabody-Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts.


As you can see from the photo above, there is quite a range of textures and colors among polishing stones, including coral stone as well as basalt. Once again, I first imagine the craftsmen who made these stones—chipping and grinding chunks of rock to make flat-faced disks—and then the craftsmen who used them, grinding away at the surfaces of the canoe to make them smooth. 

Sharkskin was the finest grade of sandpaper available. I do not know whether it was used in canoe-building, but possibly so. I've seen the Kapi‘olani Canoe up close and can attest to its smoothness. Today of course we have a wide range of tools, and the work can be remarkably quick and magical. 
Mid-bracesa

 

 

 

Two Holesa

Behold two holes (above left) drilled for where one of the booms will be lashed to the hull. The hole on the left is freshly drilled; the one on the right has already been sanded. What a difference! Then there are the two mid-braces (right), cut out of a poplar board. A little grinding and sanding and they have lovely curved tops and smooth edges. 

Sanding is transformative. Let us rejoice in it! 

Gluing

Okay, now back to the stitch-and-glue process. After the pieces of the canoe are all stitched together, the major gluing begins. I am using a marine epoxy system that involves pumping epoxy resin and hardener in prescribed amounts, mixing them well for quite a while, and then applying the mix (also called epoxy) in different ways for different purposes. In this case, the resin-hardener mix is combined with wood flour (powdered sawdust the consistency of flour) into a thick, peanut-butter-like substance. This is carefully spread along the inside of each seam, a process called filleting. (It’s pronounced “FILL-it,” not “fill-A,” easy to remember because that’s what it does: fill it in.) Once the epoxy coating is hard and dry, you sand the surface smooth, then run 3-inch fiberglass tape over the filleted seam and epoxy over that layer. Sand and epoxy again, and you have a smooth, rock-hard, durable seam.

Sampler Inside a

I created a little demonstration piece (right) that shows these stages. Toward the left point is bare wood stitched together with copper wires. Then the same with a coating of epoxy. Then the brown filleting, then the fiberglass over the top, and finally recoated with epoxy. 


Fillets a

Here (above) is the inside of the canoe showing the brown fillets along the seams and also around the mid-brace. I filleted around the ends of the seats also, where they meet the hull. The brown of the filleting does not quite match the color of the wood, but oh well. The important thing is that the canoe holds together when I put it in the water. 

Once the fillets are done, you flip the canoe over and carefully cut off the copper wires as close as possible to the hull. These have served their purpose and aren’t needed any more. (Inside the canoe they are hidden under the fillets.) Then with various sanding tools, you grind the sharp seams where the planks meet into nice smooth, rounded edges. These too get epoxied and fiberglassed (but not filleted; that’s just for the inside). See those stripes at the rounded edges? They are the layers of the marine plywood.

Hull & Tools a

Above you see the hull of the canoe, where the copper wires have been snipped off, and some of my key tools: a rasp, which shaves wood down nicely; a plane, which takes off strips and is best when the wood is straight and level; and the wonderful random-orbital sander. What makes it “random,” I don’t know, but it works really well. 

Below you can see that the hull, which after stitching looked kind of like Frankenstein on a bad day, is smoothed and rounded into something that actually looks like a boat!

Sanded Hull 2a

 


Sanded Hull 1a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



The epoxy and fiberglassing then takes place on the outside, hiding over those stitching holes and giving the whole thing a nice, smooth, glossy finish. Before taking the photo below, I've already put several coats of varnish on the hull, which makes it shiny.

Outside Hull-2a
 

Banana_flower
Banana flower, Samoa. After the plant has produced bananas, the leathery flower continues to bloom for a long time. The sap of the banana tree stains very strongly. Don’t get it on your clothes!

You may be wondering what Hawaiians did to protect the hull, since they didn’t have epoxy and varnish. Apparently there were many types of organic paint (pā‘ele) that Hawaiians mixed. In The Hawaiian Canoe, Tommy Holmes writes that the common ingredients included juices from the buds and twigs of the ‘akoko (a type of Euphorbia), the flowers and buds of the banana, and the red inner bark of the kukui tree. A liquid was obtained by pounding and grinding these; then the liquid was mixed with powdered charcoal (some plants provided the best ash or charcoal for this purpose) before being strained. Applied to the hull of the canoe (but not the gunwales), this painted it black. Quoting Z. P. K. Kalokuokamaile’s 1922 Hawaiian newspaper article on canoe-building, Holmes notes that on some canoes, such as those made for chiefs, hens’ eggs and other herbs were then used to make the hull shiny “so that the images of people could be reflected in the sides of the canoes.”

Similarly Holmes quotes N. B. Emerson as saying that instead of charcoal, sometimes ochre or red earth was used to give the hull a reddish color, especially for chiefs (red being the color of chiefliness)—the “red canoe of the king” (wa‘a ula o ke ali‘i).

It may seem hard to believe that this mix of plant juices, charcoal, and possibly dirt protected the hull, and apparently many Westerners who watched the process were skeptical. But Holmes asserts that the pā‘ele was equal to many of the protective hull paints used today. Certainly many Hawaiian canoes lasted for quite a while. And given the amount of work to make one, that’s a good thing. 

Next: Booms and outrigger

—Douglas Herman, NMAI 

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Nice post.

Great post! I'm glad I stumbled on to this blog series. I've always wanted to try something like this. What type of marine epoxy system do you use?

Kevin Brown, Chief of the Pamunkey Indian Tribe

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native peoples today. —Dennis Zotigh, NMAI 

Please introduce yourself with your name and title. Can you give us your Native name? 

Kevin Brown, chief of the Pamunkey Indian Tribe. The Onondagas call me Shunkawaka. 

Pamunkey_0122a
Kevin Bown, chief of the Pamunkey Indian Tribe. Photo courtesy of the tribe.
What responsibilities do you have in your community? 

General administration, chairing meetings and working with committees, and genealogical and historic research. 

How did your life experience prepare you to lead? 

I have spent a lot of time on other reservations. 

Who inspired you as a mentor? 

My grandfather and great uncles, also Leon Shenandoah, [the late head of the Iroquois Confederacy and an advocate for indigenous peoples' rights worldwide]; Tom Porter, [the Mohawk elder and cultural and spiritual leader]; and Jimmy Little Turtle, [the son of Viola White Water (Shawnee), who has continued her work promoting Indian culture and education].

Are you a descendant of a historical leader? If so, who?

Coekoquiske, [a 17th-century leader who was referred to at that time as] the “Queen of Pamunkey.”

Where is your community located?

The Pamunkey Indian Reservation is adjacent to King William County, Virginia.

Where are the Pamunkey people originally from? 

We’ve always been here. 

What is a significant point in history from your tribe that you would like to share? 

We captured John Smith and took him before Powhatan. 

Approximately how many members are in your tribe? 

We have 208 tribal members, 40 of whom are reservation residents. 

What are the criteria to become a member of your tribe? 

You must be a direct descendant from one of our base of 40 tribal-roll members living on the reservation in 1900 and 1910, and you must have kept a social connection with the reservation. 

Is your language still spoken on your homelands? 

We lost our fluency, but are currently having language classes on the reservation.

What economic enterprises does the Pamunkey Tribe own? 

Duck hunting and the rental of duck blinds are our main sources of income.

What attractions are available for visitors on your land? 

The Pamunkey Indian Museum, Powhatan’s Grave, and the Pamunkey Fish Hatchery

What annual events does the tribe sponsor?

We sponsor the annual Pamunkey Fish Hatchery Fish Fry [in the spring, at the end of the shad season].

How is the tribal government set up? 

There is a chief and a seven-member council. We have an elective system, and we use peas and corn to vote in a secret ballot. A kernel of corn means yea, and a pea means nay.

Is there a functional, traditional entity of leadership in addition to your modern government system? 

The elected chief and council have replaced hereditary chiefs and Clan Mothers. 

Sweat lodge photo 1a
Chief Brown preparing a sweat lodge. Photo courtesy of the Pamunkey Indian Tribe.


How often are elected leaders chosen?
 

Every four years, like the U.S. president.

How often does the tribal council meet? 

The council meets at least six times per year, and the “town,” or resident tribal community, meets four times per year.

How does your tribe deal with the United States as a sovereign nation? 

We have treaties with England signed in 1646 and 1677, and we take an annual tribute of a deer to the Governor of Virginia. We are also currently waiting for federal recognition. 

What message would you like to share with Indian youth? 

Keep strong, keep your culture strong. Onah. [And now it is time.]

Thank you. 

 

To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. 

Meet-native-america

From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips.

All images used with permission. 

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This is a wonderful series. I am enjoying it immensely and look forward to future interviews.

August 15, 2013

Who won the 2013 Living Earth Festival Native Chef cooking competition? Everyone who loves blueberries!

This year’s fourth annual Living Earth Festival Native Chef cooking competition began at 12 noon on July 21, 2013, and featured the talents of Chef Freddie Bitsoie (Diné) from Phoenix, Arizona, and Chef Don McClellan (Cherokee) from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Chef Freddie is an independent chef and a scholar of food and culture. Chef Don is executive chef with Cherokee Nation Entertainment in northeastern Oklahoma (and also my son). The special ingredient to be used in each of two appetizers, two entrees, and two desserts is blueberries, a fruit native to the Americas. In previous years the competition has featured other foods indigenous to this hemisphere, including green chiles, the Three Sisters (corn, beans, and squash), and heirloom tomatoes. 

Traditionally Native Americans used blueberries in ceremonies; as food—fresh or dried, alone or combined with other foods; infused as tea; and to trade to other Natives who did not have access to blueberries.

Both cooking teams
The two teams. Don McClellan is 2nd from the left. Freddie Bitsoie is in the light gray smock, third from the right.

The chefs at this year’s competition were assisted by culinary students from L’Academie de Cuisine here in Washington, DC.  Chef Freddie Bitsoie was also assisted by sous-chef Wilma Consul, and Chef Don McClellan was assisted by sous-chef Carlos Castanedas. Karen Saunders (Red Lake Nation Band of Chippewa Indians), Red Lake, Minnesota; Jerome Grant, sous-chef for the museum’s Mitsitam Café; and Patricia Fields-Alexander (Pawnee Creek) from Muskogee, Oklahoma, judged the competition.

Chef Freddie plating cheesecake dessertChef Don plating salmon dish
Left: Chef Freddie Bitsoie and his team get ready to present their miniature blueberry cheesecakes. Right: Chef Don McClellan and his team plate Coca-Cola BBQ glazed salmon with roasted red pepper, corn, and blueberry salsa.

For the appetizers, Chef Don prepared classic gazpacho but substituted blueberries for the tomatoes; for his second appetizer he made blueberry corn fritters (recipe below). Chef Freddie prepared Kwakiutl-style crab fritters with blueberries and mixed greens and a blueberry-glazed shrimp appetizer with Navajo corn. For the entrees, Chef Don prepared Coca-Cola BBQ glazed salmon with roasted red pepper, corn, and blueberry salsa (recipe below), and roast duck breast atop sweet potato and blueberry puree with grilled asparagus; while Chef Freddie prepared posole with blueberries (recipe below) and pan-seared mahi mahi with blueberry sauce, served with a bean ragout. For dessert Chef Don prepared a parfait of fresh blueberries with crème fraiche and blueberry cinnamon fry bread topped with fresh blueberries, while Chef Freddie prepared fresh blueberries with a blueberry syrup glaze and a blueberry cheesecake (recipe below). 

Three judges
Judges Karen Saunders (Red Lake Nation Band of Chippewa Indians), Jerome Grant; and Patricia Fields-Alexander (Pawnee Creek).
After all of the dishes had been taste-tested by our panel of three judges, everyone’s attention turned to the two folks charged with tallying the results. After several minutes the scores were complete, and the winner of this year’s Native Chef Cooking Competition was Chef Freddie Bitsoie. In spite of the intense outdoor heat everyone participating had a great time. Our thanks go out to all of the many volunteers and sponsors who made this year’s competition such a huge success.

Chefs congratulating each other

Chefs Don McClellan and Freddie Bitsoie congratulate each other on a wonderful competition.

The chefs generously shared four of their best blueberry-centric recipes. I hope you enjoy them.

—Carolyn McClellan

Carolyn McClellan (Cherokee Nation) is the Assistant Director, Community and Constituent Services, of the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian.

All photos are by Katherine Fogden (Mohawk), NMAI.

To see a video fo the competition, scroll past the recipes below. To browse all the videos from Living Earth Festival , visit the museum's YouTube channel.
 

Blueberry corn fritters 
Chef Don McClellan 

1 dozen ears of corn on the cob, husked 
4 oz flour 
2 oz sugar 
1½ tsp salt 
1 tsp pepper 
2 eggs, beaten 
4 oz cheddar cheese, shredded 
8 oz fresh blueberries

1. Cut the kernels from the cob. Scrape well to release all milk.

2. Blend the dry ingredients.

3. Add the corn, eggs, and cheese. Mix to make a batter. Fold in blueberries.

4. Heat oil to 350°F and drop the batter by spoonfuls into the hot oil. 

5. Fry until golden on all sides. Allow to drain.

Serve immediately.

Makes 30 fritters.


Posole with blueberries
Chef Freddie Bitsoie

3 tbl oil
1 lb pork butt, diced
2 tbl paprika
2 tbl cumin
1 to 2 cups red chile, pureed
1 small onion, chopped
2 garlic cloves, minced
8 oz tomato sauce
2 cups cooked hominy
1 cup fresh blueberries
28 oz chicken stock
Bay leaf
1 thyme sprig
1 lime, zest and juice
Salt
Pepper
Cilantro (for garnish)

1. In a heavy-bottomed pot, heat oil and season with salt and pepper; sear pork till skin forms, then remove.

2. Sweat onion, thyme, and bay leaf in pot.

3. Add paprika, cumin, lime zest, and lime juice.

4. Add pork, garlic, tomato sauce, pureed red chile, and chicken stock.

5. Simmer till meat is tender.

6. Add hominy and fresh blueberries and adjust seasoning.

7. Garnish with cilantro. 

Makes 4 servings.


BBQ glazed salmon with roasted red pepper and corn salsa 
Chef Don McClellan

Coca-Cola BBQ sauce

3 oz unsalted butter
5 cloves garlic, minced
1 medium-sized yellow onion, minced
1½ cups ketchup
½ cup cider vinegar
¾ cup light brown sugar 
2 tbl Worcestershire sauce
¼ cup tomato paste
3 tsp chipotle powder
1 tsp kosher salt
Ground black pepper as needed
12 oz (1 can) Coca-Cola 

1. Heat butter in a medium saucepan over medium heat.  Add garlic and onions and cook until translucent and soft (approx. 6 to 8 minutes). 

2. Add tomato paste and cook until sauce begins to caramelize (approx. 3 to 4 minutes).

3. Add ketchup, vinegar, sugar, Worcestershire sauce, chipotle powder, salt, pepper, and Coca-Cola. Bring to a simmer and allow sauce to cook and thicken, approx 30 to 40 minutes. 

4. Serve immediately or cool and refrigerate until use. 

Makes 2 cups 

Roasted red pepper and corn salsa 

2 red peppers, roasted and julienned
1 roma tomato, diced                        
¼ cup red onion, diced
½ bunch cilantro, chopped
 ½ cup blueberries, fresh
1 lime, juiced 
½ lemon, juiced
Salt and pepper to taste

Combine all the ingredients for the salsa together.

Allow flavors to develop by making at least 30 minutes prior to service; for best results make 24 hours in advance. 

BBQ glazed salmon

2 6-oz salmon filets, skin removed 
4 oz Coca-Cola BBQ sauce
Vegetable oil as needed (approx. 2 tbl)
Salt and pepper to taste

1. Season salmon with salt and pepper.

2. Heat a medium-sized sauté pan over high heat; pour in oil. Place salmon in pan skin side up; regulate the heat so as not to get the pan too hot. (If you see continual smoke from the pan, reduce the heat). 

3. Allow salmon to cook in pan until you see the edges start to turn an opaque orange color, rather than the vibrant orange raw color (approx. 4 to 5 minutes).

4. Turn salmon over and immediately brush the seared side with BBQ sauce. 

5. Cover the sauté pan with a lid and continue cooking until the salmon is done (approx. 3-5 minutes, depending on thickness). 

6. Remove pan from heat and brush more BBQ sauce liberally over salmon. 

7. Place salmon on plate and top with approx. 3 to 4 oz of salsa. Serve immediately.

Makes 2 6-oz servings. 

Recipe can be served with any starch of your choice: mashed potatoes, rice pilaf, roasted sweet potatoes, couscous, or wild rice. 

Blueberry cheesecake 
Chef Freddie Bitsoie 

1 ½ cup finely ground graham-cracker crumbs
6 tbl butter, melted
1/3 cup agave
4 oz. cream cheese
2 cups whipping cream
1 tsp. vanilla
4 oz. dark chocolate, grated (keep cool to avoid melting)
½ cup frozen blueberries
1 lemon, zest and juice
1/3 cup agave
1 packet gelatin (7g)

1. In a small springform pan mix the graham cracker crumbs, butter, and 1/3 cup of agave and press into the bottom of the pan, forming a crust.

2. Using an electric mixer, cream the cheese, blueberries, lemon zest and juice, and 1/3 cup of agave together.

3. Bloom the gelatin with boiling water; set it aside to cool slightly ( keep the gelatin warm enough to stay liquid).

4. In another bowl, whip the cream and vanilla until soft peaks form.

5. Fold the whipped cream into the cheese mixture.

6. Add the grated chocolate.

7. Pour in the gelatin.

8. Stir the cheese mixture until it is one color, then pour it into the springform pan

9. Cover with plastic wrap, place in the refrigerator, and allow to set for about 4 hours.

Makes 1 small cheesecake (4 to 6 servings). 

 
The fourth annual Living Earth Festival Native Chef Cooking Competition at the National Museum of the American Indian. Washington, DC, July 2013. 

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I love blueberries dish's but i also like that type of group discussion topics. I read your 4 article but i like what you said about "s food—fresh or dried, alone or combined with other foods; infused as tea; and to trade to other Natives who did not have access to blueberries.", I have also been experimenting with pressure on blueberries dish's and beans but i still struggle to get it right..........

GREAT!! Cooking is absolutely my life. And i really thank yo guys for posting and sharing all this stuff all in one blog. I love blueberries and this,Posole with blueberries is I guess a must try. I will surely try it all out. Perfect recipes for my sister's wedding, good food for all, plus a nice wedding entertainment...A total AWESOME.