Meet Native America: Darwin John St. Clair Jr., Chairman of the Eastern Shoshone Tribe

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh 

Chairman St Clair White House conference
Chairman Darwin St. Clair Jr., representing the Eastern Shoshone Tribe at the 5th White House Tribal Nations Conference. Washington, D.C., November 2013.

Please introduce yourself with your name and title. 

Darwin John St. Clair Jr., chairman of the Eastern Shoshone Tribe.

Can you share your Native name with us?

It's Owndabe. It means Stern, but my nickname is Sonny.

Where is your tribal community located? 

The 1868 Fort Bridger Treaty established the Eastern Shoshone Reservation in west central Wyoming for the Shoshone and Shoshone Bannock Tribes. It's now known as the Wind River Indian Reservation, and it covers more than 2.2 million acres. 

Where were the Eastern Shoshone people originally from?

The Shoshone Nation extends from the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, with the Eastern Shoshone and Comanche, west to the California coast, and south to Mexico. Thirty-eight tribes speak similar Shoshonean dialects. Each year there is a Shoshonean reunion hosted by the various tribes.

The boundaries of Eastern Shoshone country described by the 1863 Fort Bridger Treaty were for 44 million acres, which includes west-central Wyoming south to northwestern Colorado, northeastern Utah, and eastern Idaho. This area also includes the Grand Tetons and Yellowstone, which became America’s first national park in 1872.

Is there a significant point in Eastern Shoshone history that you would like to share?

In the early 19th century, the Shoshone people were instrumental in the success of the Corps of Discovery by providing them with horses and guidance through the mountains. 

Due to the relationship we had with the U.S. government, during negotiations over the 1868 treaty we were able to pick our own land to reside on. So we choose the Warm Valley area of Wind River, on our traditional homelands, where we have been since time immemorial. 

How is your tribal government set up?

We still practice our traditional form of governance by way of having a General Council. It is made up of the people—all enrolled members over the age of 18 can vote. The leadership is six members who are elected to conduct business on behalf of the people, the Business Council. The chairman is selected from within the Business Council members. 

We are a resolution tribe, and we make law by passing resolutions. The main areas that require General Council approval are changes to the Law and Order Code, hiring of attorneys, changes to the Fish and Game Code, or changes to the Tribal Enrollment Code.

Is there any other functional, traditional entity of leadership in addition to your modern government system? 

Traditionally, leadership was made up of a council of leaders selected by their band or family group and responsible to the people they represented to make decisions on their behalf. Not until we got involved with the U.S. government did we have to appoint only one leader. 

How often are elected leaders chosen? 

Council members are elected to serve a four-year term. Each term is staggered, so there is an election every two years for three council members.

How often does your government meet?

Our Tribal Council meets on a daily basis, Monday through Friday. Eastern Shoshone General Council meetings are held on a quarterly basis throughout the year or through special General Council meetings when needed. 

What responsibilities do you have as a tribal leader?

To protect and preserve our treaty, sovereignty, water, air, wildlife, culture, language, government, and assets. To improve upon the education of all tribal members. To keep traditional knowledge for those tribal members unborn for generations to come and leave the future with something holistic and organic to build on. 

How did your life experience prepare you to lead your tribe?

Chmn Darwin St Clair
Chairman St. Clair at a Pawnee War Dance in honor of his nephew. The American flag in the background belonged to hi the Code Talker Phillip Gover, Chairman St. Clair's grandfather. Pawnee, Oklahoma, 2013. 

There is nothing that really prepares you for this type of leadership role. However, my family was always involved in the activities of my people, which meant that I was involved, willing or not. My grandfathers Herman and Wallace St. Clair—my grandmother's brothers—served on the council in the earlier years. My father, Darwin St. Clair Sr., served several terms on the council and also as chairman, along with my older sister, Sara Robinson, and a couple of my uncles. All served our people in this manner.

On my mother’s side my uppit (grandfather) Phillip Gover (Skidi Pawnee) was also a chairman and chief for the Pawnee people, along with uncles that served the Pawnee people. In fact, I have an uncle, Marshall Gover, who is currently the president of the Pawnee Nation. We are both leaders for the people, but leading different nations. 

So in my home I grew up understanding the importance of serving your people, growing up with traditional values, and the importance of education. I am greatly honored, privileged, blessed, and humbled to serve my people in this capacity.

Who inspired you as a mentor? 

I had many awesome mentors. Some were family members, coworkers, or colleagues, and some didn’t know they were mentors. They inspired me in different ways. But my first mentor was my grandmother Rose St. Clair, who told me traditional stories about the Shoshone people and how not to be. My uppit Phillip Gover, who sang to me Pawnee songs in his language and translated for me the stories behind why the song came about or was made. My mother, who taught me and showed me the importance of compassion for all people. My father, who taught me and showed me the importance of family, culture, and hard work.

Are you a descendant of a historical leader? If so, who?

My mother, Sandra May Gover St. Clair, was Miss Indian America in 1956. My grandfather Phillip Gover was given a Congressional Gold Medal for his service as a Pawnee Code Talker.

Approximately how many members are in the Eastern Shoshone tribe?

There are 4,274 enrolled members as of a recent count.

What are the criteria to become a member of the Eastern Shoshone Tribe?

To be enrolled, a person must have a total of one-quarter tribal blood quantum and at least one of the parents must be an enrolled member of the Eastern Shoshone Tribe. A person can use blood from another federally recognized tribe to meet the enrollment requirement. 

Is your language still spoken on your homelands?

Yes, our language is spoken, but very few members are fluent speakers.

What economic enterprises does your tribe own?

The Eastern Shoshone Tribe owns the Shoshone Rose Casino; the Shoshone Rose convenience store and gas stationMorning Star Manor, a skilled nursing care facility; a dialysis center; Eastern Shoshone Crusher; and Eastern Shoshone Construction. 


Eastern Shoshone Indian days powwow, 2014
Dancers at the 55th annual Eastern Shoshone Indian Days powwow—one of the largest powwows in Indian Country. Fort Washakie, Wyoming, June 2014.


What annual events does the tribe sponsor?

In late June there is the Eastern Shoshone Indian Days powwow, Eastern Shoshone Sundance is in July, and in the winter months we have traditional dances.

What other attractions are available for visitors on your land?

We have some of the most pristine and beautiful mountain ranges, lakes, and rivers in the west. We have fishing, hiking, and camping. There are also tribal historical sites and the Eastern Shoshone Tribal Cultural Center. 

How does your tribe deal with the United States as a sovereign nation?

We deal with all tribal, state, and federal governments as a sovereign nation.

What message would you like to share with the youth of your community?

Education is the key to empowering our indigenous people to continue to maintain, sustain, and improve the lives of all nations. This education cannot only be academic, but must also be holistic and inclusive of our indigenous worlds if we are going to obtain knowledge of our traditional ways and beliefs, and leave it to our future generations so that they have enough to continue on their path. 

Is there anything else you would like to add?

I'd just like to thank my family—my wife, Viola; our children Sunny Rae, Darwin III, Bryan Beaver, Sandra, and Noah Raymond; and our grandchildren, Blaine, Daisy, and Elizabeth—and to tell them how proud I am of them and how important they are to me.

Thank you.

Hou we hou—thank you


Photographs courtesy of the Eastern Shoshone Tribe.
 

To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. Meet-native-america
From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All photos used with permission. 

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January 31, 2015

This Day in the Maya Calendar: February 2015

Cholq'ij, the Maya sacred ceremonial calendar of 260 days—a cycle of 20 Day deities and 13 numbers—is the basis of the Maya spirituality that survives to this time, practiced daily among millions of Maya people, in thousands of communities. The interpretation of the days can vary from one Maya people to another. The interpretations given here are based on sustained conversations and participation over three decades with Maya Q'eqchi calendar priest Roderico Teni and daykeeping families in the area of Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, by Jose Barreiro (Taíno), head of NMAI’s Office of Latin America, and his wife, Katsi Cook (Mohawk). Glyphs representing the Day lords appear throughout Maya Country; these were painted by Esteban Pop Caal (Q'eqchi Maya) of Cobán.

For more background to this series, please see Jose's introduction, "Living in the Practice." For further insight into the role of the Day lords in everyday life, please see the Maya Journal. For the complete year so far, please see the Maya calendar archive.

Illustrations: Esteban Pop Caal (Q'eqchi Maya), calendar glyphs. Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala; 2003. Paint on wood. Purchased from the artist. 26/2685. Photos by Ernest Amoroso, NMAI 

8 Noj  |  Thursday, February 26, 2015

262685_NojCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 8 Noj. Noj is Woodpecker; 8 is a double balance. Noj is a woman's highest intelligence. Maya knowledge and wisdom live in this day—good science to support positive deeds, good projects, good business, a good home. On Noj good ideas are available through the intelligence connected to the movement of the earth. Boys born on this day have important female qualities and can be attentive to the knowledge of nature, which rules all. Girls born on this day can be clear leaders. This is a good day to hear advice and make decisions, a good day to feed the mind, recognize curiosity, and strengthen memory. Noj is one of the four Yearbearers. —Jose Barreiro 

7 Ajmac  |  Wednesday, February 25, 2015

262685_AjmacCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 7 Ajmac. Ajmac is Bee, also Vulture; 7 is a pivotal number. On Ajmac ancestor spirits can detect and smooth the thread of time in our lives. Prudence, intelligence, ancient wisdom are in this day. This is a day to plead forgiveness for serious faults and to be judged. It is a day that demands moral rectitude, respect, and sincere analysis. On this day our faults (stains) must be faced and paid for; humble request for pity is encouraged. Ajmac is a propitious day for the women of a household to make peace with one another after conflict, to apologize for sharp words; it is a good day to pray for smooth relationships and the renewal of agreements among women. Hard luck can face those born on Ajmac. —Jose Barreiro 

6 Tz'ikin  |  Tuesday, February 24, 2015

262685_Tz'ikin

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 6 Tz'ikin. Tz'ikin is Bird, best represented by the Hummingbird, also the Quetzal and Eagle; 6 is a middle, even number. Tz'ikin carries messages between the Heart of Earth and Heart of Sky. Cold, heat, light, air, cloud are its elements. Love, intuition, precognition are strong in those born on this day. Tz'ikin is a good day for humans to follow birds to the corn—to find good material luck. This is a good day to ask for revelation and intelligence, for vision, and for abundance; a good day to ask for collaboration in projects or for personal freedom. On this day, women have the privilege to ask for their husbands and sons to triple the family money. —J. B. 

5 I'x   |  Monday, February 23, 2015 

262685_I'xCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 5 I'x. I'x is Jaguar; 5 is one hand. I'x is woman's energy day. This is a day to connect with your own land and to pray for its original owners; to pray for and appreciate your house; to pray for the finances to buy and sustain land; to ask for fertility in humans and animals; to request vigor and strength for reproductive organs, particularly female. I'x is a good day to pray to the mountains in favor of the land. It is a good day for a woman to request strength in her husband's commitment to matrimonial stability. People born on I'x have a close relationship to el Mundo and receive good access to precious metals. I'x is a good day for solitude and meditation. —J. B. 

4 Aj  |  Sunday, February 22, 2015 

262685_AjCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 4 Aj. Aj is Cane Reed; 4 is a balance. Aj begins the women's cycle, sentiments of family and home, the spinal cord. Aj is life and receives life. This is a day of resurgence and renewal, as in the reed and the corn; a day for the triumph of good over evil, life over death; a day of happiness, renewal of food, money, the heart of life. People born on this day renew their communities; they are sickly as children and sturdy as adults; they are especially lucky; they are good awakeners of their families and communities; they make good midwives. Aj is a good day to ask for clarity of destiny, a good day to pray for the protection of your life and of the newborn, a good day to pray for twins, a good day to pray for humanity. —J. B. 

3 Eh  |  Saturday, February 21, 2015 

262685_EhCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 3 Eh. Eh is Bobcat, also the Path and the Tooth; 3 is a rotor. Eh can orient individuals, groups, or communities to their destiny. Eh is the day to ask for protection from dangers and obstructions during travels—specifically, that on your road the attention of thieves or highway police or border inspectors will be deviated from your trajectory. Solitude is in Eh, light rain, kindness, alignment. People born on this day can be good counselors, spiritual guides with the gift of prayer to Ajaw (Creator) on the destiny of things. Also, good dentists are born on this day. Eh is one of the four pillars of the 20 days, a Yearbearer—a strong, especially sacred day. A prayer started in Batz can be carried by Eh through the full cycle of 20 days. —J. B. 

2 Batz  |  Friday, February 20, 2015

262685_BatzCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 2 Batz. Batz is Monkey; 2 is duality. Monkey braid, monkey fingers, monkey tail, Batz is the grasp of the monkey's hand so tight and braided the fist will not let go, even in death. Batz is a good day for beginnings, and for some Maya daykeepers, Batz begins the 20-day calendar. Batz is unity, a good day to tie things together, a good day for a marriage or to start a construction, a good day for initiation into the ways. Batz is the thread of time that rolls out from under the earth, weaving life until cut, weaving time into history. People born on Batz are calm and self-confident; they make good spiritual guides and leaders, and goodhearted architects. —J. B.  

1 Tzi  |  Thursday, February 19, 2015 

6a01156f5f4ba1970b019b04c65ab2970d-200wiCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 1 Tzi. Tzi is the Canine, the guardian; 1 is the beginning. Dog, Wolf, Coyote, Tzi can be snarly, terrifying the unprepared with his bark and his bite. Tzi people are zealous to guard the sacredness of ceremony, to identify and punish "intruders," those not disciplined to participate. Benevolent to friends and fierce to enemies, Tzi is steady to reward or punish. Tzi will punish those who disrespect the Days and the spirit of the family. This is a good day to ask for mystic insight for leaders so that they can seek and discover hidden things, so that they can be just. Tzi has strong sexual energy, hard to restrain. When this energy is defined, people born on Tzi make loyal friends, husbands, and wives. —J. B.  

13 Toj  |  Wednesday, February 18, 2015

262685_TojCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 13 Toj. Toj is the mystic Fish—the tear of jade and drops of rain, water falling; 13 is high turbulence. Toj is a day of making even, a good day to pay spiritual and financial debts and to collect what you are owed. This is a day of evenness for a family, a good day for parents to pay the family's debt to el Mundo, good for the oldest son to appreciate the father and the father to appreciate the mountain. Illness can be deviated from the family by making a ceremonial offering on this day. —J. B.   

12 Anil  |  Tuesday, February 17, 2015

262685_AnilCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 12 Anil. Anil is the fertility in the seed, Anil is Rabbit; 12 is the highest balance. Anil is red, white, yellow, black—the four colors of corn, the seed of life that is the unity of the world. Anil is renewal after death, regeneration of the earth. Anil people are four-directions people and can be good travelers. This is a day of coming back, a day to generate and appreciate abundance, a day of declaring love to create a new relationship, a day to announce the wish to do business, a day of finding lost things, a day to ask for help in overcoming shyness. —J. B. 

11 Kiej  |  Monday, February 16, 2015 

262685_KiejCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 11 Kiej. Kiej is the Deer; 11 is high turbulence. Kiej is the four directions, four hoofs striking the earth at once, the quaternity of the cosmos linked to prayer, highest aviso to el Mundo—the living world. Kiej is the staff of authority, keen energy of a chief to detect danger, perception of the leader buck, his horns. Kiej is a good day to pray for mental and physical agility, a day of agile travelers and good communicators. It is a day also to ask for clarity before gossip and ill intentions. A major gift of nature, Kiej holds indefatigable energy. He is one of the four main carriers of time. —J. B. 

10 Kame  |  Sunday, February 15, 2015 

262685_KameCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 10 Kame. Kame is the Owl and the recognition of death; 10 is a high balance. A day that recalls the night, tranquility, and silence, Kame is a good day to ask for the ancient and recent ancestors who have gone on, to thank them, and to remember them with purpose. This is an appropriate day to extend reconciliation, to feel and give forgiveness, to develop patience, to invoke against mortal illnesses, to access superior knowledge. Without fear, it is a good day to approach the spiritual dimension, "the enchantment." —J. B. 

9 Kan  |  Saturday, February 14, 2015 

262685_KanCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 10 Kan. Kan is the Snake; 9 is a triple rotor. Kan is the ancient origin—Gucumatz, the Plumed Serpent. This is a day of strict and impartial justice, a day of definition and maturity, and a good day to offer respect and to thank the corn. On Kan, matters of justice, judges, and courts can be cleared up. This is a good day to pray that truth and justice are manifest in the Heart of Sky, Heart of Earth; a good day to put aside jealousies and request equilibrium in life and in the family. It is a day to ask for physical strength and patience, to contemplate our spiritual evolution, and to rekindle the internal fire. —J. B.  

8 Kat  |  Friday, February 13, 2015

262685_KatCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 8 Kat. Kat is Spider, also Web and Fire; 8 is a double balance. On Kat the unity of the people is paramount, and knowledge is deepened. Kat is the network of the sacred heart, the family hearth. Today is a good day to pray for your family fireplace, the spirit of the fire that belongs in the home, the one that calls other spirits to ceremony and speaks for them. Kat is the net that hauls in the fish and the net that holds the ears of corn, a day that can bring the fruition of things and the untangling of complications. This is a good day to help free prisoners from captivity, to request vigor and power for the weak. —J. B. 

7 Aqbal  |  Thursday, February 12, 2015

262685_AqbalCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 7 Aqbal. Aqbal is the Dawn, also Bat; 7 is a pivotal number. Aqbal is clarity, the separation of darkness and light as the Sun disperses the fog and obscurity of night. This is a good day to ask for a peaceful and happy daybreak, a day to find hidden and lost things, a day to wash away tears of sadness. On Aqbal, the sacred fire is recognized and appreciated. Aqbal is a good day to clean the ashes (renew the heart) of a fireplace and to present a new baby to el Mundo. A potential bride or groom can be revealed on this day. Harvesting of corn can begin on this day. People born on Aqbal relate in the present and are a special link between past and future. They are early risers, good workers, tranquil and kind, strong before an enemy, good researchers and finders of hidden things, often called "the candle of the home." —J. B. 

6 Iq  |  Wednesday, February 11, 2015

262685_IqCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 6 Iq. Iq is Wind, also Moon; 6 is a middle, even number. Wind is powerful, violent, driven of itself, identity. A day of strong emotion, Iq is also a healing day. Good wind is nutritional for human minds; it is the mystic breath and vital inspiration of nature. On Iq, a breeze or wind that splits against your face is a blessing and a cleansing to purge your head and body of illness. Respiratory ills are prayed over on this day. This is a good day to appreciate all of Creation. The Day lord Iq is one of the four Yearbearers, or mams, a creator who helped finish the world and put breath (essence) in human beings. People born on Iq are inclined toward spiritual ways and can impulsively tap into cosmic sources. —J. B. 

5 Imox  |  Tuesday, February 10, 2015

262685_ImoxCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 5 Imox. Imox is Lizard; 5 is hone hand. Imox is the very force of gravity and a good day to pray for creativity and for rain. Imox can open el Mundo to receive cosmic messages. Known as a "crazy" day, Imox requires much concentration and control. A day of high male intelligence, also impatience and agitation, Imox can be difficult. Grounded on its left side, left arm, this day is easily unbalanced and in need of clasping by left and right hands. Imox can be good if held in the balance of the Heart of Sky and Heart of Earth; unattended, Imox can manifest imbalance, mental nervousness, and even death. People born on Imox are open and sincere, but indecisive—in need of ceremony to set the positive to override the negative. —J. B. 

4 Ajpu  |  Monday, February 9, 2015

262685_AjpuCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 4 Ajpu. Ajpu is Caracol, Spiral Shell; 4 is a balance. Ajpu is the Sun, captain of time, a day of personal strength and for good to triumph over evil. Ajpu, who cares for boys and guides men, begins the men's cycle. This is a day to connect with the ancestors, who can reward and punish. Death is reachable and amenable; spirits can ask permission to enter el Mundo, the living world. Day of the warrior and blowgun hunter (cerbatanero), Ajpu is the strong blow of the dart that hits its target, a good day to pray for stealth or for a break in enemy lines. Ajpu is also a good day to start building on a house, a good day to make prayers for women and for success in lactation. —J. B.  

3 Kawoq  |  Sunday, February 8, 2015 

262685_KawoqCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 3 Kawoq. Kawoq is Turtle, also Sky Serpent; 3 is a rotor. Kawoq is a high woman day—a day of duality in all of nature and a guardian of contentment. It is the day of woman and man, lightning and thunder, fecundity and imagination; a day of midwives; a day of prayer for unity within the home, strength within the family, renewed strength for convalescents, and the smoothing of all irritation. This is a good day to turn bad medicine back on itself. Kawoq attends to young women in pregnancy, labor, and delivery, and to full realization for all women; it is a day of their sash. Kawoq is also a good day to commemorate the Staff of Authority, a good day for the men of a family and community to pray for the coffers (good fortune) of the women and for the protection of the home. Good midwives, writers, and architects are born on this day. —J. B. 

2 Tijax  |  Saturday, February 7, 2015

262685_TijaxCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 2 Tijax. Tijax is Fish, also Obsidian; 2 is duality. Tijax is a day of doctors, good to pray for surgeons and all medical practitioners; a day of sacrifice and liberation from suffering; a day of sharp, cutting objects, of knives and scalpels and scissors. Tijax is a safeguard for domestic animals against predators, a good day to pray for all animals that are sacrificed, both in ceremony and in everyday life. Tijax is a good day to use metal (a machete, scissors) to "open the sky"—to solicit rain, solicit life, split black clouds. Gossip, calumny, and sorcery, on money and sexual matters, can be overcome on this day; on a high-number day, disputes can turn public and become debilitating. Tijax is a good day for seasoned masters to fortify daykeeping trainees against ridicule by envious countrymen or evangelicos. It is not a good day to plant. —J. B. 

1 Noj  |  Friday, February 6, 2015

262685_NojCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 1 Noj. Noj is Woodpecker; 1 is the beginning. Noj is a woman's highest intelligence. Maya knowledge and wisdom live in this day—good science to support positive deeds, good projects, good business, a good home. On Noj good ideas are available through the intelligence connected to the movement of the earth. Boys born on this day have important female qualities and can be attentive to the knowledge of nature, which rules all. Girls born on this day can be clear leaders. This is a good day to hear advice and make decisions, a good day to feed the mind, recognize curiosity, and strengthen memory. Noj is one of the four Yearbearers. —J. B.

13 Ajmac  |  Thursday, February 5, 2015

262685_AjmacCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is13 Ajmac. Ajmac is Bee, also Vulture; 13 is a middle even number. On Ajmac ancestor spirits can detect and smooth the thread of time in our lives. Prudence, intelligence, ancient wisdom are in this day. This is a day to plead forgiveness for serious faults and to be judged. It is a day that demands moral rectitude, respect, and sincere analysis. On this day our faults (stains) must be faced and paid for; humble request for pity is encouraged. Ajmac is a propitious day for the women of a household to make peace with one another after conflict, to apologize for sharp words; it is a good day to pray for smooth relationships and the renewal of agreements among women. Hard luck can face those born on Ajmac. —J. B. 

12 Tz'ikin  |  Wednesday, February 4, 2015

262685_Tz'ikin

Corresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 12 Tz'ikin. Tz'ikin is Bird, best represented by the Hummingbird, also the Quetzal and Eagle; 12 is the highest balance. Tz'ikin carries messages between the Heart of Earth and Heart of Sky. Cold, heat, light, air, cloud are its elements. Love, intuition, precognition are strong in those born on this day. Tz'ikin is a good day for humans to follow birds to the corn—to find good material luck. This is a good day to ask for revelation and intelligence, for vision, and for abundance; a good day to ask for collaboration in projects or for personal freedom. On this day, women have the privilege to ask for their husbands and sons to triple the family money. —J. B. 

11 I'x   |  Tuesday, February 3, 2015 

262685_I'xCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 11 I'x. I'x is Jaguar; 11 is high turbulence. I'x is woman's energy day. This is a day to connect with your own land and to pray for its original owners; to pray for and appreciate your house; to pray for the finances to buy and sustain land; to ask for fertility in humans and animals; to request vigor and strength for reproductive organs, particularly female. I'x is a good day to pray to the mountains in favor of the land. It is a good day for a woman to request strength in her husband's commitment to matrimonial stability. People born on I'x have a close relationship to el Mundo and receive good access to precious metals. I'x is a good day for solitude and meditation. —J. B. 

10 Aj  |  Monday, February 2, 2015 

262685_AjCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 10 Aj. Aj is Cane Reed; 10 is a high balance. Aj begins the women's cycle, sentiments of family and home, the spinal cord. Aj is life and receives life. This is a day of resurgence and renewal, as in the reed and the corn; a day for the triumph of good over evil, life over death; a day of happiness, renewal of food, money, the heart of life. People born on this day renew their communities; they are sickly as children and sturdy as adults; they are especially lucky; they are good awakeners of their families and communities; they make good midwives. Aj is a good day to ask for clarity of destiny, a good day to pray for the protection of your life and of the newborn, a good day to pray for twins, a good day to pray for humanity. —J. B. 

9 Eh  |  Sunday, February 1, 2015 

262685_EhCorresponding with this day in the Gregorian calendar is 9 Eh. Eh is Bobcat, also the Path and the Tooth; 9 is a triple rotor. Eh can orient individuals, groups, or communities to their destiny. Eh is the day to ask for protection from dangers and obstructions during travels—specifically, that on your road the attention of thieves or highway police or border inspectors will be deviated from your trajectory. Solitude is in Eh, light rain, kindness, alignment. People born on this day can be good counselors, spiritual guides with the gift of prayer to Ajaw (Creator) on the destiny of things. Also, good dentists are born on this day. Eh is one of the four pillars of the 20 days, a Yearbearer—a strong, especially sacred day. A prayer started in Batz can be carried by Eh through the full cycle of 20 days. —J. B. 

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January 30, 2015

Meet Native America: Brian Cladoosby, Chairman of the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community and President of the National Congress of American Indians

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh


Please introduce yourself with your name and title. 

Brian Cladoosby, chairman of the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community and president of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI).  

Chairman Brian Cladoosby
Brian Cladoosby, chairman of the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community and president of the National Congress of American Indians.

Can you share your Native name with us?

It's Spee-Pots. It means Little Bear in our language. Spots is bear. When I was growing up my nickname was Cub. An elder, the late Vi Hilbert, bestowed that name on me. It is a gift that keeps on giving. 

Where is your tribal community located? 

The Swinomish Reservation is located about one hour north of Seattle and one hour south of the Canadian border. We are about 15 minutes off I-5. We live on an island, Fidalgo Island. We have 7,000 acres of land that is about 70 percent trust, and about 3,000 acres of tidelands. 

Where were your people originally from?

Swinomish is one of the tribes who were not removed from their homelands. We have been living in the same place for generations. We are also descendants of three other bands that were removed from their lands and relocated to Swinomish: We are successors to the Samish, Lower Skagit, and Kikiallus who had to relocate to Swinomish after the signing of the 1855 Point Elliott Treaty.

What are the criteria to become a member of the Swinomish Indian tribal Community?

You have to be one-quarter Swinomish.

What is a significant point in Swinomish history that you would like to share?

There are many—when we signed the Point Elliott Treaty, the fact that we have 70 percent of our reservation back in our ownership, having taxing authority on our own lands, sovereignty, and, of course, the Boldt decision in 1974, when the federal courts affirmed our treaty rights to our historic fishing grounds. All these will have generational impacts on the Swinomish people.

What responsibilities do you have as a tribal leader?

As chairman of the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community, I preside over all Senate meetings and meetings of the General Council—which is made up of all voting-age members of the Swinomish. I am paid full time, so I also supervise all our departmental directors.

As president of NCAI, I preside at all conventions of the organization and all meetings of the Executive Committee, and I am authorized to exercise other duties delegated to me by the Executive Committee.

How is your tribal government set up?

Swinomish has eleven senators who are elected to five-year terms. Two Senate seats are up every year, and three seats are up on the fifth year. I believe we are one of the only tribes in the nation whose government has five-year terms. This was created during the Indian Reorganization Act. We currently have about 170 years of Senate experience at our council table.

How often does your government meet?

The Senate meets the first Tuesday of every month. 

Who inspired you as a mentor? 

I really enjoyed attending grade school and high school. It was a great experience for me. I had some excellent teachers as role models who had a very positive impact in my life. 

Brian Cladoosby fishing
Chairman Brian Cladoosby, fishing.  

I also had the opportunity to listen to some of the best tribal speakers in our community growing up. We are an oral tradition culture, and listening to public speakers was very valuable for me. Landy James was a Swinomish tribal member, and not only my high school teacher, but also my football and baseball coach in high school. This man was all about building up the self-esteem of everyone he interacted with, especially youth. Morris Dan, Dewey Mitchell, Richard Peters, Dave Joe—these were some of the best speakers in our community, and growing up I had the opportunity to listen to them. Robert Joe, Sr., Chet Cayou Sr., Susan Wilbur, Laura Wilbur—these were some of the senators I had the opportunity to learn from when I was elected to our Senate in my 20s.

And of course my father, Mike Cladoosby. He is the best father anyone could ask for. He prepared me for life, from raising me, to teaching me how to fish, to just being an awesome example on how to be a father.

Kel-Kahl-Tsoot, my dad’s great grandfather, put his X on the Point Elliott Treaty for the Swinomish Tribe on January 22, 1855. My father is 81 years old. When you think about it, my dad’s great-grandfather signed our treaty in 1855. My dad is still alive, and he is the great grandfather to my grandchildren. My grandchildren are the seventh generation since the signing of our treaty.

Is your language still spoken on your homelands?

We only have a few tribal members who still have an understanding of our language.

What economic enterprises does your tribal community own?

We have the Swinomish Casino & Lodgea casino, bingo hall, lodge, and convention center—and two convenience stores that sell gas, cigarettes, and alcohol. We own an 18-hole golf course. We have the Swinomish Fish Company, which buys and sells salmon, crab, and other seafood products. We sell canned salmon, and we sell caviar to Europe and Japan. Working cooperatively with Native fisherman throughout the Salish Sea and from Alaska to California, we've started the NativeCatch brand of wild, sustainably harvested seafood. We just started selling salmon jerky to a company named Patagonia. We sell salmon cat and dog food, as well. We also have a number of land leases on our reservation, with four different types of businesses.

What annual events does the Swinomish community sponsor?

We have our annual Swinomish Days in August. The festival includes canoe races, a Fancy Dance contest, and bone games. In 2011 we hosted Paddle to Swinomish, that year's Salish Sea Canoe Journey, and each other year we welcome the canoes when they travel through our waters heading to the tribe that is hosting Canoe Journey.

What other attractions are available for visitors on your land and waters?

There are many attractions within one to two hours of our reservation—the San Juan Islands, the Cascade Mountains, the Skagit River, and many other beautiful places.

How does your tribe deal with the United States as a sovereign nation?

We have a relationship with the United States that we inherited, one we didn’t ask for. With that being said, we have to communicate continually with all levels of the federal government, from elected officials to administration officials to agencies and their staff. We deal with many agencies—the Environmental Protection Agency, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Justice, Health and Human Services—and it is important that we continue to talk with them to make sure we have a great working relationship. Like all relationships, we may not always agree, but we have to agree to disagree and still keep talking in order to work things out.

What message would you like to share with the youth of your community?

Our youth have so many opportunities in front of them. This is what our elders prayed for. We give full-ride scholarships to the school of your choice if you graduate from high school or get a GED. We believe that the way to defeat poverty and drug and alcohol abuse is through education. Our youth and their parents have to want to make the choice for education.

We have experienced a lot of historical trauma in our history, and it is up to us not to look at ourselves as victims, but survivors. And as survivors we are starting to break the cycle of trauma one generation at a time. The most important message for our youth is choice. At the end of the day, your choices bring one of two things, pain or pleasure.

Is there anything else you would like to add?

I have the greatest job in the world. Our Creator has blessed me beyond measure. He is the reason I am where I am right now. I have an awesome wife, Nina—we will be married 37 years in March—two beautiful daughters, LaVonne and Mary; one son-in-law, Tyler; and two of the greatest gifts God can give you, grandchildren, Bella and Nathanael. 

I have been a member of the Swinomish Senate for 30 years and chairman for 18 years. It has been a great ride. I would not be able to be president of NCAI if we did not have a stable government at home. I work with 11 senators who are in the canoe, paddling in the same direction, with the same goals in mind, to provide the best governmental services for our people.

Thank you.

Thank you for giving me the opportunity to introduce myself to your readers. God bless.


Photographs courtesy of the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community.

To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. Meet-native-america
From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All photos used with permission.

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January 16, 2015

Meet Native America: Gary Pratt, Chairman of the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh 


Please introduce yourself with your name and title.

Gary Pratt, chairman of the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma

Can you share your Native name with us?

I am extremely honored to have been given my great-grandfather Blaine Kent’s name of Ahu Thaway (Black Wing). I am the great-great grandson of Frank and Emma Kent. 

Where is the Iowa Tribe located? 

The offices of the Iowa Tribe are located three miles south of Perkins, Oklahoma. Our jurisdiction covers four counties—Lincoln, Logan, Oklahoma, and Payne.

Chairman Gary Pratt, Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma
Chairman Gary Pratt, Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma. Photo courtesy of the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma.

Where was the Iowa Tribe originally from? 

History of the tribe dates us back to the 1600s when we were present in the Red Pipestone Quarry region in Minnesota. The Iowa people lived the majority of our recorded history in what is now the northern region of Iowa. The state of Iowa takes its name from the Iowa Tribe.

How is your tribal community set up?

We are organized under the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act with a constitution last amended in 2008.  We are a self-governance operating under Public Law 638, which enables us to carry on a positive relationship with the federal government. We have a Business Committee that is made up of five elected positions—chairman, vice-chairman, treasurer, secretary, and council person.  All serve two-year terms. We meet twice a month as a committee. 

Approximately how many members are in your tribe?

We are small tribe with a current enrollment of 815 citizens. To become a citizen, you must have a parent on the roll and possess a minimum of 1/16 Ioway blood quantum.  

Is your language still spoken in your homelands?

One of the disadvantages of being a small tribe is that we are running out of members who are fluent in the Iowa language. We are currently working to preserve what we have and make it available to our youth and all others.

I believe tribes everywhere are beginning to understand what an amazing generation we just lost and continue to lose, and the impact they had on our survival as a tribe today. For example, last year at the Presidential Summit in Washington, D.C., I shook the hands of five Code Talkers. This year there were only two in attendance. 

What economic enterprises does your tribal community own?

We currently operate two casinos—Cimarron and Ioway—and just recently opened a new travel plaza. We also operate a medical/dental clinic that provides healthcare services to Native Americans as well as the general public. Other operations include a gallery, smoke shop, and RV park. With casinos and tribal operations, we employ over 300 people and are making a positive economic impact in the area. 

What attractions are available on your homeland?

Golden eagles
Bah Kho-Je Xla Chi provides rehabilitation for injured golden eagles (above) and bald eagles, and a sanctuary for eagles that cannot be returned to the wild. It also conducts education and conservation programs. Photo courtesy of the Grey Snow Eagle House Facebook page

I believe the one program that sets the Iowa Tribe apart from other tribes is our eagle aviary, Bah Kho-Je Xla Chi (Grey Snow Eagle House). We have developed an eagle rehabilitation program in order to protect injured eagles and increase community awareness of wildlife and Native American culture.  We have successfully released thirteen eagles back into the wild. The facility opened in January 2006 and currently houses 47 eagles.

Victor Roubidoux, the founder and director of our program and an Iowa tribal elder, is one of the leading experts in the world on the subject of eagle research. We are working with Oklahoma State University to develop a nationwide genetic research program. Our goal is one day to be able to find an eagle and have the ability to determine where that particular eagle came from—for example, from Alaska, Wisconsin, New York, or whether the bird is local. We understand our responsibility to this magnificent creature and take this responsibility seriously. We are very excited about the possibilities and direction this program is going.

Another wonderful thing to take part in here is the Iowa Tribal Powwow. The Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma will host the 30th Annual Iowa Tribal Powwow on June 19, 20, and 21, 2015. The public is invited to attend the full weekend of events. The Iowa Tribal Powwow is held at the Bah-Kho-Je Powwow Grounds in Perkins, Oklahoma, which offers facilities for traditional camping. All dance competition categories are represented at the powwow, and there are daily Gourd Dance sessions in the afternoon, as well. Arts and crafts and food vendors are encouraged to contact the Powwow Committee for more information. 

What responsibilities do you have as a tribal leader?

My role as chairman of the Iowa Tribe is to uphold the Constitution of the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma, to seek out opportunities that lie ahead, and to understand the options when dealing with the federal and state government on the issues of sovereignty, healthcare, and gaming. The decisions are always made in the best interest of the people. 

Who inspired you as a mentor?

My inspiration and mentors have always been the elders—their stories of survival, their preservation of customs and ways, song, prayer. Family values have always been an inspiration for me to do my best and help those around me. Taking the time to talk to an elder, recognizing a veteran, or shaking hands with a Code Talker gives me my energy. It doesn’t get any better than that.

What message would you like to share with the youth of your community?

Listen to your elders, pray for your elders as they have been praying for you since you came in to this world. The day will come when you will play a critical role in the existence of your tribe. Use education as your weapon of choice. Every day seek out the opportunity to make a difference. Prepare yourself for that moment.

Thank you.

Thank you.

 
To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. Meet-native-america
From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All photos used with permission.

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January 14, 2015

Lisa Rutherford Offers Words of Encouragement: Apply to the Artist Leadership Program!

The Artist Leadership Program (ALP) of the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) aims to rebuild cultural self-confidence, challenge personal boundaries, and foster cultural continuity while reflecting artistic diversity. ALP's goal is to recognize and promote indigenous artistic leadership. At the same time, the program seeks to enhance the artistic growth, development, and leadership of emerging student artists and scholars through community art workshops in the artists' communities. Selection for the program is based on the artists’ proposed research, proposed workshops or public art projects, digital portfolios, resumes, artist statements, and letters of community support.

During December 2014, the museum hosted artist Lisa Rutherford while she conducted research in the museum’s collections. Here Lisa shares her aspirations and values, and her thoughts about what museums and Native artists can offer each other.

Lisa Rutherford doing research at the NMAI CRC
Lisa Rutherford, an Artist Leadership Program grantee for 2014-2015, studies the design and technique used to make a deerskin coat in the collections of the National Museum of the American Indian. NMAI Cultural Resources Center, Maryland; December 2014.


My name is Lisa Rutherford, and I am Cherokee. I live on a ranch near Tahlequah, Oklahoma, where I get a lot of inspiration for my work. My primary art form is hand-coiled pottery, but I also create twined textiles and feather capes based on historic descriptions. The 1700s is my favorite century.

Part of my work is demonstrating cultural arts and living history, so I want to maintain cultural and historical integrity, even though I also want to try new things and move in new directions. I don’t want my art to become stagnant or just to copy artifacts, I want to create new things with old influences while maintaining that cultural integrity.

The reason I applied to the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) Artist Leadership Program was to study feather capes and early textiles, to learn the different methods of textile-making and to help with historic accuracy in my work. I also want to study what Cherokees were wearing at specific points in more modern time periods to help with my impressions when I demonstrate living history.

The NMAI Artist Leadership Program was so much more than I expected! I almost gave up on submitting my application, because I had applied a few times before and not been chosen, and I was really frustrated with my project proposal and research proposal. But Keevin Lewis, NMAI outreach program coordinator, gave me some guidance, and I got the application in just before the deadline, despite the Wi-Fi in my studio going down.

ALP artists December 2014
The four individual artists in the Artist Leadership Program for 2014-2015 (from left to right): Lisa Rutherford (Cherokee), Anita Paillamil Antiqueo (Mapuche), Jacob Butler ((Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian Community), and Irma Alvarez Ccoscco (Quechua). NMAI Cultural Resources Center, Maryland; December 2014.

To other artists, my advice is don’t give up! Keep applying! The museum staff is there to help us, and they are good at their jobs. I’ve already suggested to several artist friends that they apply to this program. In addition to offering opportunities to see cultural items in the collections, the NMAI staff is also knowledgeable in film and photo archives, documents, and books, and they'll try to make other resources available.

My fellow program participants and I also had training from the First Peoples Fund and assistance developing our staff and public presentations, which we gave three times. Speaking to diverse audiences was a good experience. But the exposure to so much wonderful art in all the museums on the National Mall, by other ALP participants, and in the NMAI collections will provide so much inspiration for new projects.

One of the most exciting times was when I first walked into the collections section of the museum's  Cultural Resources Center (CRC) in Suitland, Maryland, and saw two rolling shelves with my name on them, filled with deerskin coats, twined textiles, and beadwork for me to study. I saw cultural objects I had studied only in photos. I was so excited that I couldn’t wait to get to the next group of materials! I got to see a couple of twined skirts found in Tennessee that have been attributed to the Cherokees. Although one is incomplete, they are in unbelievably good condition, and I could clearly see how they were made. Studying the textiles inspired me to try a different, complicated technique for my community project. Most of my community workshop participants are skilled artists with some experience with twining, so I think they will like the challenge. I hope others are encouraged to do their own research and perhaps apply to ALP themselves.

Many of the things I studied were made to be utilitarian items or for everyday use, not for artistic expression. But I noticed the quality of the artifacts in the collection. Many items were well made and had stood the test of time. Stitches were tiny, even, and strong. Repairs were imperceptible. Beadwork was flawless, no thread or stitches showing. There were extra decorative touches that had no purpose other than to make the items more aesthetically pleasing. Sometimes today we rush to make deadlines and don’t take the time to add extra little touches. Although these things were meant to be used, they were still made attractively and with obvious pride in workmanship.

Lisa Rutherford on the Washington subway
Lisa Rutherford exploring the area's cultural resources via the Metro. Washington, D.C.; December 2014.

I’m pretty much an introvert, so spending a week basically on my own in the city was an exciting experience that I enjoyed a lot. I was out of my comfort zone at times, but I loved every minute of it.

I feel that I now have validation of some of my theories, and new information to help me move ahead on new projects. I also have new questions to research. One thing I gained from the program that I didn’t anticipate was confidence in myself. When I was in the collections, I realized I already have a lot of knowledge and am even able to share information about some of the objects with the museum staff. I gained knowledge that I will share when I teach and when I do living history. I learned that I can gain a lot of information from the resources at the CRC and the Smithsonian Museum Support Center to share with others and help them with their art.

I posted a lot of my experiences on social media during my trip and am surprised by how many people have mentioned they were following me. My community workshop will be limited in size, and the subject probably won’t appeal to a large audience. In addition, though, I am doing a presentation and slideshow to share my newfound experiences with whoever wishes to attend. 

—Lisa Rutherford

Lisa Rutherford is giving a public presentation about her research experience Friday, January 16, 2015, at 6 p.m. Central time, at the Cherokee Arts Center's Spider Gallery in Talequah, Oklahoma.

All photos are by Keevin Lewis (Navajo), NMAI

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January 08, 2015

Meet Native America: Cristina Danforth, Chairwoman of the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin

In the interview series Meet Native America, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian invites tribal leaders, cultural figures, and other interesting and accomplished Native individuals to introduce themselves and say a little about their lives and work. Together, their responses illustrate the diversity of the indigenous communities of the Western Hemisphere, as well as their shared concerns, and offer insights beyond what’s in the news to the ideas and experiences of Native people today. —Dennis Zotigh 


Please introduce yourself with your name and title.

Cristina Danforth, Chairwoman, Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin.

Chairwoman Danforth
Chairwoman Cristina Danforth, Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin.

Can you share with us your Native name?

My Oneida name is Kwahlak^ni. It means influential, or she is able to respond, respect her. I received my name in Oneida, Canada, at the Longhouse during Midwinter Ceremony when I was 14 years old. I am Wolf Clan. 

Where is the Oneida Tribe located?

Our tribe is located in northeast Wisconsin and is adjacent to the city of Green Bay. Our original reservation boundaries of 1838 make up 65,400 acres that are home to five municipal governments and two county governments. 

Where was your tribe originally from?

The process of settlement into what is now known as the state of Wisconsin (statehood, 1848) began with the United States Treaty with the Menominee of 1831, in which the federal government ceded land to the New York Indians. The treaty was agreed to by the Menominee Indian people and the U.S. president, with assistance from the Indian agent of Green Bay. The 1831 Menominee Treaty was furthered by the U.S Treaty with the Oneida in 1838. That treaty, also known as the Buffalo Creek Treaty, acknowledges the Oneida Indians and our ancestral ties to New York state.

What is a significant point in history from your tribe that you would like to share?

The point in time for our tribe I want to share is the period of 2002 to 2005. I was serving my third term on council and my first term as tribal chairwoman. I had just finished my term as vice chairwoman, and our gaming compact was up for renewal with the state of Wisconsin; the compact was set to expire in 2003. In September of 2002 my first grandson, Calvyn, was born, and he was my motivation to get things done and move the tribe forward. We were also in the midst of mediation with the state of New York over our Oneida Land Claim Settlement. Both agreements were top priority and kept me traveling on an almost weekly basis.

The Agreement of Settlement and Compromise to Resolve the Oneida Indian Land Claims in the State of New York was established and acknowledged during my first term as Oneida chairwoman. This agreement discusses the rights retained and exercised by the Oneidas of Wisconsin and the terms of settlement and conditions that must exist in order to resolve the claim. This agreement was signed and acknowledged by a Proclamation from Governor George Pataki and Chairwoman Cristina Danforth on December 7, 2004. 

The gaming compacts were being discussed collectively by the United Tribes of Wisconsin. This delegation was formed in June 2002; I was designated as their spokesperson. In November 2002 Governor Jim Doyle was elected, and in January 2003 he was inaugurated. His first task was to meet with the eleven tribes in Wisconsin. He invited the tribes to Madison and made a commitment to the tribal leadership. He convened the meeting with the tribal leaders and then introduced his Cabinet of State Administration and secretaries. He told the tribal leaders that meeting with his staff was equivalent to meeting with him, as they were authorized to renegotiate the compacts on his behalf and with his direction. Under Governor Doyle’s leadership, the Oneida Gaming Compact was concluded in April 2003. 

The Oneida compact renewal was historic and significant: We had been operating on a five-year renewal, and the newly negotiated compact became a perpetual-term compact. It is the only compact in the country to be perpetual. The compact also now has a 4 percent regulatory fee, which is the lowest in the state. It was significant for us in Oneida so that we could fund community infrastructure development projects and secure long-term loans utilizing revenues from our gaming operations. The 2003 Gaming Compact allows Oneida to continue long-standing programming, education, and community services. 

How is your tribal government set up?

Our tribal government consists of nine elected Business Committee members who govern the tribe when the General Tribal Council (GTC)—the body composed of our tribal membership—is not in session. The Business Committee includes four officers—chair, vice chair, treasurer, and secretary. The remaining five members are at-large council members.

How often are elected leaders chosen?

A general election occurs every three years. Candidates must be at least 21 years of age and must be enrolled tribal members living within the boundaries of the reservation or in Brown and Outagamie counties. 

How often does your council meet?

Our council meets every second and fourth Wednesday of the month to conduct official business. The council also meets every Tuesday before the regular meeting to discuss items in executive session, which is closed to the public. Actions on those items must be done in open session at our regular Wednesday meeting. The council also meets with state, federal, and tribal officials on a consistent basis and is required to attend GTC meetings—the annual meeting in January, semiannual meeting in July, budget meeting, and special meetings.

How did your life experience prepare you to lead your tribe?

My leadership development came from mentors and life experiences from my family. When I was growing up, I was the middle of nine children. My family moved around a lot, and I went to several schools. Changing schools meant new friends and new teachers. This led to my experience of being adaptable. My mom raised us nine kids by herself while still attending college. So on days when I felt stressed, I would think of my mom and all her struggles as a single parent. She also expressed the need to go to college and the benefits of being educated. Her family values were passed on to us and our kids. 

Chairwoman Danforth
Chairwoman Danforth teaching tribal youth Oneida raised beadwork techniques.

The family goes beyond the immediate family and encompasses extended family as a resource for support and encouragement. Everything we do is to benefit the family, which extends to the community and the nation. Making sacrifices is necessary to promote a work ethic and setting goals. Having a vision and a purpose while realizing that all we do is for the children, the family, and our elders. 

When my mother died I was 13 years old. I told myself it was up to me to take care of myself and to do what is necessary to get by. It was the realization that I am an independent person and whether I would succeed or not was up to me. Maybe the reason I was compelled to survive as best as I could was the fact that I felt so alone that April day in 1975. It took me until I was in my twenties to realize that it is OK to ask for help. 

What responsibilities do you have as a tribal leader?

On any given day I can be asked to address concerns from the community, corporate decisions, financial directives, or policy questions. That requires being flexible, having a vision for the people, and respecting the cultural differences that can clash with commercial aspects of our tribe—recognizing that they are to be handled with care and the balance of creation.

Who inspired you as a mentor?

When I wanted to quit college, I was inspired to continue by my husband, Paul. When I wanted to run for public office, I was inspired by my aunt Shirley Hill. When I wanted to give up on my life purpose, my spiritual helper, Ernie St. Germaine, encouraged me to seek the wisdom of the Creator. Now I am inspired by the gift of my grandchildren: Taneal, Lenna, Avary, Karmyn, Keeshon, Seanae, and Calvyn. They lighten my load with love and laughter when the responsibility of leadership demands my full engagement. 

Are you a descendant of a historical leader? If so, who?

My maternal grandfather was Levi Parker Webster. His Oneida name was Lahstohsles, meaning Chief Tall Feather. My grandfather was a vegetarian and an extraordinary athlete and professional runner. He attended Carlisle Indian School and excelled there as well. On his 50th birthday he ran 50 miles from Green Bay to Oshkosh, Wisconsin. He also did a non-stop promotional run from Milwaukee to Chicago in 23 hours. I guess that’s where I get my stamina. 

Approximately how many members are in your tribe?

Our tribal membership is just over 17,000. 

What are the criteria to become a member of your tribe?

In order to be an enrolled member, you must be at least one-quarter Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin blood degree by proving ancestry to a family member on the 1935 Oneida base rolls.

Is your language still spoken on your homelands?

Yes, the Oneida language is still spoken in the community, and several of our departments have been working on finding new ways of making the language more accessible. The Oneida Language and Speak Oneida apps were recently launched and are available for download. Language classes are also offered year round in the community. Having said that, there is still a need to create awareness for our people to begin learning and speaking the language more. Many of our fluent elder speakers have passed away in recent years, and because of that the community is going through a generational language disconnect. Lack of Internet access has also prevented many of our community members from utilizing available resources. 

What economic enterprises does your tribe own?

Oneida owns a number of enterprises that contribute to the local and state economy. Our gaming operations consist of six facilities including a new $24-million expansion and renovation of our Main Casino. Our bingo hall and three of our Oneida One-Stop convenience stores also offer gaming.

Our tribal-owned Bay Bank was founded in 1995 and provides financial services specific to assisting tribal members obtain mortgages and start entrepreneurial ventures. It is the only bank in the city of Green Bay with a HUD Section 184 Indian Housing Loan Guarantee Program, which offers any Native American who is part of a federally recognized tribe an opportunity to own a home. 

Oneida Total Integrated Enterprises (OTIE) is an SBA-certified 8(a) business that provides a number of services including environmental services, restoration and remediation, construction, engineering, and recovery to government agencies as well as commercial customers around the world. OTIE provides a training and recruitment opportunity for young Native people in the fields of engineering and construction. 

Some other enterprises include Thornberry Creek at Oneida Golf Course, Oneida Community Integrated Food Systems, and our Radisson Hotel & Conference Center, established in 1986.

What annual events does your tribe sponsor?

Oneida sponsors multiple powwows including the annual Fourth of July Powwow. We also sponsor the Big Apple Fest every September at our Apple Orchard.

What other attractions are available for visitors on your land?

I would encourage guests to visit the Oneida Nation Museum, Thornberry Creek at Oneida Golf Course, the Oneida Buffalo Farms and Observatory, and the Oneida Nation Gate at Lambeau Field, just to name a few. Our Tourism Department also provides personal and bus tours of the reservation. 

How does your tribe deal with the United States as a sovereign nation?

As a tribal government we continue to lobby Congress regarding policies that affect Indian Country. Oneida governance demands a presence in Washington, D.C., to solicit each presidential administration for our land claims in New York and for environmental, health, economic development, education, and intergovernmental affairs. 

White House roundtable
Native American leaders at a roundtable discussion with President Barak Obama in advance of the 2014 White House Tribal Nations Conference. From left to right: U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan (partially obscured); Chairwoman Danforth; Chairman Darrin Old Coyote, Crow Nation; Speaker of the Navajo Nation Senate Lorenzo Bates; and President Obama. Not shown: Chairman W. "Ron" Allen, Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe; Chief Phyliss Anderson, Mississippi Choctaw; Chairman Thomas Beauty, Yavapai Apache Nation; Governor Joseph M. Chavarria, Santa Clara Pueblo; Chairman Jeff Grubbe, Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians; Co-Chair Jerry Isaac, Alaska Federation of Natives, Tanacross Native Village; Chairwoman Myra Pearson, Spirit Lake Nation; and Principal Chief Geoffrey Standing Bear, Osage Nation. 
Washington, D.C., December 2, 2014.


What message would you like to share with the youth of your tribe?

Be proactive and stay involved in your local community, because issues affecting Indian Country will continue to be part of our efforts going forward. We will need educated leaders eager to learn about the laws and policies affecting our land, beliefs, economic development, governance, and the health of our people. Involvement with social media has proven to be an effective way of sharing our voices and being creative in our approach to express community values. 

Thank you.

Thank you for the opportunity to share a glimpse of the Oneida Tribe, and may the New Year bring you many blessings. Hoyan! 


All photos are courtesy of Chairwoman Danforth. Used with permission. 

To read other interviews in this series, click on the banner below. Meet-native-america
From left to right: Representative Ponka-We Victors (Tohono O’odham/Southern Ponca) taking the oath of office in the Kansas House of Representatives; photo courtesy of Kansas Rep. Scott Schwab. Bird Runningwater (Cheyenne/Mescalero Apache) at the Sundance Film Festival; photo courtesy of WireImage. Sergeant Debra Mooney (Choctaw) at the powwow in Al Taqaddum Air Force Base, Iraq, 2004; photo courtesy of Sgt. Debra Mooney. Councilman Jonathan Perry (Wampanoag) in traditional clothing; photo courtesy of Jonathan Perry. Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee) at Blackhorse et al. v. Pro Football, Inc., press conference, U.S. Patent and Trade Office, February 7, 2013; photo courtesy of Mary Phillips. All photos used with permission.

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